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阅读中“迷人”的承上启下句 - 谭蓉

作者:谭蓉 2019-08-23 17:42 来源:武汉编辑
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在阅读英文文章时,泛读帮助我们迅速掌握文章大意,精读帮助我们读懂文中特定句子。


在留预课本以及雅思阅读中有这样几类题目很考验我们的泛读和精读句子的能力:heading匹配以及信息匹配题。通常我们会通过题目中的关键词去文中定位,找到相应句子,对比题目和原文再作答,但是有时候我们找到了原词,题目却还是做错了,这是什么在作怪?原来,在我们的原文中,尤其是中心句位置出现了一些承上启下的句子,然而我们可能并没有仔细分析导致做错题,今天老师要给大家分析三种在阅读中常用来承上启下的句型。


1. 首句中有转折词或首句和第二句之间有表转折的承接词


常见的转折词:while(虽然,然而),although,even though,whereas(然而), but, yet, however, on the contrary, conversely(相反),quite the opposite, despite, in spite of, unlike, compared with, rather than, instead of等。


例子:文章话题The superconsumer generation中第四段开头如下:While consumers of the generation Y era can choose from a huge range of products at giant shopping malls, they have even more choice online.


根据上下文此处的while表虽然,粗略分析,while从句呈上,主句启下,当然为了确认,我们还需往后稍微读一下,通过接下来的句子Gen Y-ers, as they are known, have grown up with the Internet...In just over a decade, internet shopping has seen an explosion in growth.中不断出现的Internet我们可以确认,they even have more choice online是本段的主旨。而通过第三段的首句While their parents’ generation may well have known many store owners personally, members of Generation Y are more likely to buy from huge multinational companies like Walmart.中的multinational companies以及Walmart可以确认第四段第一句话中的while从句是承接上一段的。(例子来源于留预读写三级 P39)


正确理解这种承上启下的句子在阅读中有着重大意义,如留预三级读写的unit 4 reading 2有一个段落信息匹配题,其中有两个选项如下:1.Why are tall buildings built?2.An example of a controversial tall building.以下为第四段第一句话:Tall buildings are seen as a symbol of success and status by many, but they are not always popular with local residents, particularly in some historic cities.


一部分同学看到Tall buildings are seen as a symbol of success and status by many就将第四段匹配了第一个题目,完美跳入出题者的陷阱,我们再仔细看这个句子会发现but引出了一个转折句,因此but前面的句子为呈上即第三段的主旨,but引出的句子才是第四段的主旨,通过这个句子的句意,我们可以预判,第三段匹配第一个选项,第四段匹配第二个选项。接下来读第四段后半部分以及三段确认。四段后半部分:London is very old and is spread over a vast area, so there are not many tall buildings in the center of the city. As a result, the construction of the Shard, the tallest building in London and in the entire European Union, has been highly controversial.controversial原词出现。以下为第三段开头:Countries and cities have been competing with each other for centuries to hold records for the tallest structures.To many people tall buildings are a sign of modernity, wealth, power and success.也跟第三段but前面的句子一致,这样我们就能确认预判的答案是正确的了。(例子来源于留预读写三级P41)


2. of course+句子放段尾


例子:留预三级读写unit 7 reading 1 paragraph 2尾句话:Of course, not all fears are innate.这个文章的阅读题为主旨段落匹配,其中两个选项如下:1.There are many fears that have developed from our natural responses to dangerous situations.2. However, many of our fears are not innate; they are learned from our experiences.


这两个选项一个写fear是天生的,另一个侧重表达fear是后天习得的,学生在读题的过程中关键词也能画的很好,即选项1中的natural responses to dangerous situations,选项2中的not innate, learned from experiences.泛读课文的过程中很多同学看到第二段结尾的not innate就将这个段落和选项2匹配上了,殊不知又进了坑。仔细分析一下Of course, not all fears are innate.汉语意思:当然,并不是所有恐惧都是天生的。根据这个汉语意思我们大胆推测,第二段应该是讲天生,第三段讲后天。接下来就是往段落中间看去确认。第三段开头如下:if you see someone almost drown, you may react by developing a fear of water.通过这个句子可以看出,这是经验习得的,说明第三段匹配第二个选项是正确的;第二段开头如下:If you think about the time when we did not live in houses, but alongside nature, we faced many more dangers from animals.通过nature等词可以看出这个段落解释的是天生的恐惧,匹配第一个选项。(例子来源于留预三级读写P69)


3. 段落开头为not only ,but also


例子:留预读写三级unit 7 reading 2paragraph 3首句:Our response not only becomes faster when we are faced with danger, but we also benefit from fear by becoming stronger in dangerous situations.阅读题为段落信息匹配题,其中有一个选项如下:why do we react quickly to danger?


我们仔细分析一下第三段的首句会发现,not only是承接上一段的,即2段主旨为:Our response becomes faster when we are faced with danger,这与我们上面的选项react quickly一致,于是可以预判第二段匹配上面的选项,这时我们可以再去第二段确认,第二段第一句:In the past, humans faced danger on a daily basis so they learned to respond to it instantly in order to stay alive.与not only引出的句子表达一致。


以上就是阅读中常见的承上启下的主旨句,无论题目怎么变化,只要我们认真分析题目和句子,提高我们精读句子的能力,遇到各种阅读题就都不会害怕了。


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