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全球化话题三连发第三弹:“治国”必须先于“平天下”吗?

作者: 2019-06-10 15:56 来源:武汉编辑
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作者:薛承授  新航道武汉学校雅思写作讲师,中国地质大学(武汉)理学硕士,“院士”奖学金获得者,香港大学博士项目全额奖学金获得者,人事部口笔记证书持有者

  

1.0 前缀

 

延续前面两篇关于节假日、国际体育赛事的全球化考题,今天小编继续带着大家分析另一类全球化话题中的典型考题——国际援助的利弊分析(international supportinternational aid)。此类考题出现频率相对较低,与前期两类考题接近,平均1到2年出现一次。延续早期推文的风格,小编今天会继续以中文思路做引导,以英文语料为补充,最后以一篇范文做结尾,向大家演示此类典型题目的一种写作模式。

 

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2.0 背景分析

 

21世纪是经济全球化节奏加快的一个世纪(the globalization of economy is accelerating),伴随着中国加入WTO以及交通出行方式的改变(join the WTO) ,国家之间的沟通合作日益紧密(close interaction and cooperation);同时,伴随着通讯技术的更新换代和推广普及(upgrading and proliferation of communication devices),国内的民众可以足不出户就了解到世界各地正在发生的事情,以前多半只会出现在书本中的词汇(如“战乱”、“饥荒”、“地震”、“海啸”)现在慢慢以图片、影片的形式出现在人们的视线中,这让人们意识到现实生活中,世界各地,特别是部分亚非拉地区和中东战乱地区,依然有一部分人群的基本生活需求和基本人权没有得到保障(basic living needs and basic human rights)。基于此,由部分国家牵头的国际援助的项目开始在世界各地开展,以促进世界和平和人类进步(world peace and progress of humanity )。

 

3.0 国际援助类型分析

 

目前,世界范围内国际援助形式主要以三种形式出现,即财政援助、技术援助以及粮食援助等(financial support, technological support, food support)。其中,财政援助主要指援助国会以赠款或者低息贷款的形式向受援国提供援助(donor countries, recipient countries, grant-in-aid, low-interest loan),以满足其经济和社会发展的需求,典型代表为中国的“一带一路”项目向非洲诸国提供了低息贷款(the Belt and Road Initiative),以帮助其获得经济发展的资金支持;而技术援助主要指技术先进的援助国会向技术落后的受援国提供在技能、资料、培训等上的各项资助,典型代表以中国向朝鲜提供医疗器械(medical facilities),并且派遣医生进行“白内障”治疗培训(training program),以及向非洲工程师进行高铁项目的技能培训项(high-speed train);最后,粮食援助,多指直接向援助国提供粮食支持,比如通过世界食品计划组织(WFP)或国际紧急食品储备组织(IEFR)来提供食品供应(food supply)

 

4.0 国际援助的利弊分析

 

4.1 国家援助的好处

 

国际援助对受援国的积极作用是毋庸置疑的。通过各种援助项目,受援国政府可以获得足够的资金和技术支持来发展当地农业和工业,建造基础设施 (construction and maintenance of infrastructures),如铁路和医院系统,提高当地居民的生活水平(improvement of living standards)。而援助国也可以通过援助项目承担起自己在国际社会中的责任(shoulder ones responsibility),帮助其建立积极良好的国际形象(build a good image for donor countries and expand their global influence) ,为其建立和维持世界大国形象打基础(a world power),而中国作为联合国的常任理事国,其在世界舞台上的话语权在一定程度上与亚非拉国家的广泛拥护紧密相关。

 

4.2 国家援助的弊处

 

但是,国际援助引发的讨论与争议也是不可忽视的。其中,国内网民经常抱怨中国政府向非洲诸国提供慷慨援助,并表现出了极度的不满,其争论点主要在于中国国内贫富差距依然存在(a wide gap between the rich and the poor),且有相当一部分人生活在贫困线以下(live under poverty)。《礼记.大学》道:“修身、齐家、治国、平天下”,意在对于个人来说,关注自身修养后,延伸至家庭经营,随后为国家管理,最后才是世界和谐,天下太平,所以治国不得,何来平天下?

 

其次,由于潜在的语言、文化、习俗的差异性(differences in language, culture, religion),援助国对受援国很有可能缺乏足够的了解,其提供的援助是否能得到最大化利用依然有待探讨。不讲国际援助,就国内区域之间的援助也会经常由于沟通的延迟与曲解,导致援助物资的浪费与滥用(waste and abuse),比如曾有新闻报道指出,08年汶川地震后涌入的大量援助物资堆砌至发霉也无人过问。

 

5.0 范文示例

 

接下来,小编以下述文章为例,以简单的思路和大白话类型的语言表达,为考生提供一篇的7分范文。

 

Some people say that giving aid to poor countries has more negative effects than positive ones. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

(开头段:背景介绍+表达个人看法)With globalization, countries around the world are having a closer relationship with each other and the sufferings in underdeveloped countries are always attracting our attention. While I agree that giving aid to other countries may inevitably cause some negative effects, I still hold the view that the positive effects are more obvious.

 

(主体段1:国际合作劣势分析1+驳斥)Admittedly, financial aid to impoverished countries may trigger dissatisfaction and resentment among the public in donor countries where there are still certain groups of people living under poverty. It is seemingly better for donors to help people in their countries rather than people in other countries. But the essence of charity should be based on the equality regardless of race, religion, gender and nationality, so when possible, we would give our hand to people in need around the world.

 

(主体段2:国际合作劣势分析2+驳斥)Another reason against international aid may be the concern about corruption in the aid-receiving countries. This is basically true because most donors have a limited understanding of the real situation in the receivers, and due to languages barriers and other unforeseeable obstacles, there is a high possibility that the donations will be misused, wasted or even lead to corrupt governments, while people in desperate need benefit the least. However, measures can be taken to maximize the benefits of donations. For example, the local government can establish a website where they can publish the information about who is in need, what kind of donation the local area needs most, where the donation comes from, how the donation is used and who gets the benefits in the end. With a transparent donation system, we can reduce the likelihood of corruption and waste, and the donors can get a guarantee.

 

(主体段13:国际合作优势分析) On the other hand, the donor countries can also get a positive effect from these cross-border aid programs. By shouldering the responsibility towards the world, the aid-giving countries can establish a positive image in the international stage as a responsible world power, which contributes to friendship between countries.

 

(结尾总结)From what I have discussed above, despite the potential negative effects, international aid is largely beneficial to both donor and recipient countries.

 

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