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全球化话题三连发第一弹:节假日的设立原因与影响

作者: 2019-06-10 15:59 来源:武汉编辑
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 作者:薛承授  新航道武汉学校雅思写作讲师,中国地质大学(武汉)理学硕士,“院士”奖学金获得者,香港大学博士项目全额奖学金获得者,人事部口笔记证书持有者

  

1.0 前缀

 

全球化大类考题一直是写作考题中相对较冷门的一个话题分支,平均1到2年一次。冷门意味着较低的考试频率和较少的典型考题,但这也为短时期内高强度有效备考做了铺垫,因为相对于其他热门话题大作文,冷门类考题需要涉及到的专业词汇相对固定,思路也相对清晰。今天小编就带着大家来分析全球化写作话题中一类典型考题——节假日的设立原因与其影响,帮助考生们了解基本的写作思路,并且提供基础语料,为考生备考全球化话题打基础。

 

2.0节假日类型分析

 

日常生活中大家常接触到的节日可大致分成三种,一大类是国际上流行的节日,如妇女节(International Women's Day)、儿童节(International Children's Day)、劳动节(International Workers' Day / May Day)等;另一大类则含有区域地方特色的节日,如与宗教习俗相关的圣诞节(Christmas)、复活节(Easter Day)、古尔邦节,与民族风俗相关的春节(Spring Festival)、清明节(Qingming/ Tomb-Sweeping Day)、中秋节(Mid-Autumn Festival),与国家演化历史相关的国庆节(National Day)等;最后一类不能从严格意义上称之为节假日,原因在于在这个日子不放假啊不放假(小编心痛3秒钟),如国际无烟日(International Non-Smoking Day)、艾滋病日(World AIDS Day)、植树节(Tree Planting Day)等等。

 

3.0节假日的成立原因与作用

 

节假日的种类虽然众多,但是其根本目的比较统一。

 

3.1 其中,节假日的第一个目的是让人们在这一天提起意识(raise public awareness ),去关注一些弱势群体的基本权利( disadvantaged groups and their basic human rights),其中儿童节的设立是为了改善儿童的生活条件,保障世界范围内各国儿童的基本权利,如保健权和受教育权(right to get education and medicare);妇女节的设立是为了保证女性群体的基本权利,体现出对女性的尊重和欣赏(respect and admiration for women),以及庆祝女性在经济、政治及社会领域的成就(celebrate womens achievements in the economy, politics and society);而劳动节则是全世界范围内劳动人民共同拥有的节日,代表对早期工人运动的致敬(respect to labour movement),是为保障工人合法权益设立的节日。经过十几年的发展和演化,这些节日也越发显现出新的色彩和力量,发挥出更明显的作用,为世界上各类弱势群体的发声提供了越来越多的机会,比如安妮·海瑟薇和艾玛·沃特森都曾在三八妇女节站上联合国的讲台,为女性弱势群体发声,呼吁保证女性权利,实现男女在家庭和社会上的平权(gender equality)。

 

3.2 其次,节假日的第二个目的则是呼吁人们去提高自己的健康意识(awareness of health)、环保意识(awareness of environment)等,如在植树节,各国政府和慈善机构会组织动员群众积极参加植树造林活动,激发人们对护林造林的热情(forestation),帮助人们意识到环保的重要性;在世界无烟日,各国政府与卫生机构则会组织宣传吸烟和二手烟对人类健康的危害(threat posed by smoking and passive smoking),呼吁社会各界的广泛参与控烟活动(appeal to the public for support and participation);在艾滋病日,国际组织和世界各国代表会以红丝带为象征,表达我们对艾滋病病人和感染者的关心与支持(show support for),宣传和普及预防艾滋病的知识,体现出我们对生命的热爱和对和平的渴望(passion for love and pursuit for peace)。同样的,世界各国以这类节日为一个契机和窗口,不断推进世界范围内植树造林活动、烟类产品管控以及艾滋病防治与预防,并且均取得了巨大的进步,比如从2000年至2017年,全球范围内新增的绿化面积内25%归功于中国的植树造林和集约农业(forestation and intensive agriculture),这体现出中国政府对生态文明建设和可持续发展的高度重视(emphasis on ecological progress and sustainable development)。

 

3.3 最后一个目的则是大多数节假日的初衷,也是东西方文化里不同节日的共性,即弘扬与传承本国传统文化,并提供机会让各离家游子回家与家人团聚,维系家人感情(strengthen family bond),比如中国的春节和西方的圣诞节。当然各地之间的节日还是会有一些附加意义上的差异性,比如中国的清明节不仅是人们祭奠先祖的日子(a day of honoring ancestors),也是人们亲近自然、踏青游玩、享受暖春的日子;而西方的万圣节除了是家人团聚、享受美食的日子外,也是家人和朋友们彼此分享感恩的事情,分享上帝的恩惠的日子(show appreciation for )。

 

4.0 范文示例

 

接下来,小编以下述文章为例,以简单的思路和大白话类型的语言表达,为考生提供一篇的7分范文。

 

考题:Nowadays a lot of charities and organizations have set up a number of special days to attract people's attention, like National Children's Day and National Non-Smoking Day. Why do they do so and what will the effects be? 

 

分析:考题由于没有提及与宗教以及民族相关的信息,所以不建议举例上述提到的民族传统节日,多去分析前述第一类和第二类节假日的成立原因与作用。

 

(开头段:改写+引出下文) In todays world, in order to attract peoples attention, a number of specials days, such as National Children's Day and National Non-Smoking Day, have been set up by some organizations and charities. This passage will talk about reasons for this change and the effects it is having on our society.

 

(主体段1:原因分析)There are mainly two reasons for the increasing number of special days in the world. First and foremost, some groups of people, such as women and children, were and still are at a disadvantage compared with others. For example, some women are still discriminated in the job market, and they are paid less compared with their male counterparts when doing the same amounts of work. Similarly, children in some war-torn, poverty-stricken areas are deprived of their basic rights to get education and medicare. All of these have urged the charitable organizations to set up International women s day and International children s day to protect the disadvantaged people. Another reason for the popularity of the special days is the effort to change bad living habits among people. This is best exemplified by the International Non Smoking Day which has been set up to warn people of the potential threat posed by cigarettes.  

 

(主体段2:影响分析)These days with special meanings are having a positive effect on our society. On these days, more attention have been paid by the public to the progress we have made and the work still undone. For instance, on International Womens Day, the United Nation will invite women who have made great achievements in their fields to speak for the disadvantaged women around the world, and tell the government the steps we should take to make further progress. Also, International Non-Smoking Day raises pubic awareness of health, promotes a healthy lifestyle and encourages a smoking-free environment for the children. A good example is the decreasing rate of lung cancer due to the effortless campaigns stemming from the Non-Smoking Day.

 

(结尾总结,展望未来)Despite the discussion above, we have to admit that we still have a long way to go towards a better world, so these special days are just the stepping stone for us to achieve the goal.   

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