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跟着这样做,写作文不再困难

作者: 2019-06-10 16:03 来源:武汉编辑
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作者:新航道武汉学校留学预备课程讲师,澳大利亚昆士兰大学中英翻译硕士。获得NAATI笔译证书。性格平和,面对学生有耐心,针对学生特点和需求,灵活安排教学内容。希望帮助每一个学生学有所获。

 

作文是许多考生最大的痛

 

写满字数就不错了

 

竟然还要有中心句和支撑句

 

中心句是什么

 

支撑句,要怎么支撑啊

 

支撑方式可不是大家常用的一句话反复说

 

这不是重要的事情说三遍哦

 

那么我们怎么解决令我们头大的中心句的和支撑句的问题呢?

 

不多说,一个字,“练”

 

首先针对主旨句进行练习,那是不是我们写个一句话放在第一句,这个段落就有主旨句了,答案当然是NO!

 

主旨句也是有要求的,我们先来看看主旨句的三大要求:

 

1. A topic sentence is a complete sentence.

 

2. A topic sentence contains both a topic and a controlling idea.

 

3. A topic sentence is the most general statement in the paragraph.

 

初期练习,大家可以利用阅读材料或者作文范文。

 

练习方法只要三步就可以搞定了

 

Step 1:可以把看过的文章的主旨句遮起来,比如留学预备三级第一单元的reading1:

 

Step 2自己来写主旨句,这里要注意上述提到的主旨句的要求,那我们可以看到这个段落中,topic是food, controlling idea是significance in new year,所以这句我们的主旨句可以是food is important in new year.

 

Step 3 检查自己的主旨句

 

a. 是否符合主旨句的要求,比对1.2.3打勾

 

b. 再对比原文主旨句,food also plays an important role in many new year celebrations,看看有什么需要改进的地方,我们就是用了important来表示play an important role in.

 

好不容易主旨句写完了,终于开始写后面的句子,这个时候大家又开始想到哪,写到哪了吧,反正本着凑字数的原则,这段字数太少,我就再写点别的。考官可没有辛苦分给你哦,那一个合理的段落结构是怎么样的,又如何支撑主旨句呢,下面这个练习,就可以解决这两个问题啦。

 

我们首先选择一个清晰的论证的段落结构,然后分析段落中每句话的作用

 

比如留学预备三级读写课本U6 reading 2:Fame and fortune do not always have a positive impact on an individual’s life.  (这句是topic sentence)

 

Many careers in the spotlight are short-lived. (这句把not positive 到short-lived具体化)

 

For example, many athletes’ physical peak only lasts a few years, and singers can have a very limited career. The field that was once the sole focus of their lives becomes something they have little or no involvement in. (这两句是举例来支撑)

 

As a result, they have a feeling of worthlessness and a complete lack of control. It can also be difficult for them to adapt back to a normal everyday life because they have been so far removed from it for so long. (这句是拓展结果来支撑)

 

所以我们可以发现支撑方式有具体化,举例和拓展结果,段落结构为中心句-具体化-举例-拓展结果。看完一遍,大家往往印象不深啊,再看一遍又很无聊。

 

这时候我们可以做排序练习。

 

首先把段落中的句子打乱顺序,比如:For example, many athletes’ physical peak only lasts a few years, and singers can have a very limited career. Fame and fortune do not always have a positive impact on an individual’s life. As a result, they have a feeling of worthlessness and a complete lack of control. Many careers in the spotlight are short-lived. The field that was once the sole focus of their lives becomes something they have little or no involvement in. It can also be difficult for them to adapt back to a normal everyday life because they have been so far removed from it for so long.

 

过两天,我们给打乱后的句子排序,这样我们可以加深对段落结构的了解,记忆深刻,之后自己也可以采用同样的段落结构啦。 

 

写作时,大家是不是会遇到这样的问题:感觉看到作文题目想不到观点,想到的分论点又不适合自己的中心论点。这个问题,我们也可以通过反向思维导图的练习来解决。

 

比如我们遇到这样一道托福作文题目:

 

People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

 

我们可以看其范文:People attend colleges or universities for a lot of different reasons. Career preparation is becoming more and more important to young people. For many, this is the primary reason to go to college, They know that the job market is competitive. At college, they can learn new skill for careers with a lot of opportunities. This means careers, such as information technology, that are expected to need a large workforce in the coming years.

 

Also, students go to colleges and universities to have new experiences. This often means having the opportunity to meet people different from those in their hometowns. For most students, going to college is the first time they’ve been away from home by themselves. In additions, this is the first time they’ve had to make decisions on their own. Making these decisions increases their knowledge of themselves.

 

Besides looking for self-knowledge, people also attend a university or college to expand their knowledge in subjects they find interesting. For many, this will be their last chance for a long time to learn about something that doesn’t relate to their career.

 

I would recommend that people not be so focused on a career. They should go to college to have new experiences and learn about themselves and the world they live in.

 

那拿到这段范文我们要做什么呢,把不会的单词查一查,把词组记一记,就结束了吗,远远不够。

 

我们还需要提炼文章的中心论点和分论点,写在纸上,这篇范文中,中心论点是人们应该上大学,分论点是职业准备越来越重要,拥有新的经历,扩展感兴趣领域的知识。写在纸上确实可以帮助我们知道这些观点,但是大家是不是发现自己忘记的很快,明明看过相关的话题,怎么还是没有合适的分论点。这个时候我们就需要做第二步了,我们需要做的是把这些论点打乱,比如

 

职业准备越来越重要

 

人们应该上大学

 

拥有新的经历

 

扩展感兴趣领域的知识

 

把这些论点写在一张纸上,过几天以后,按照图示结构,还原位置

                  

大家可以经常做这样的练习,既可以更好的积累观点,又可以帮助自己更好的区分分论点和中心论点,理清自己的写作意图

 

素材的来源也很多,除了上面的托福范文或者雅思范文意外,我们的课本还有外刊文章比如经济学人,都是很好的来源。

 

通过上述练习,大家一定可以写出结构更清晰合理的段落,想要提高写作水平非一日之功,大家多多练习吧。

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