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托福写作中的语法与形式解析

作者: 2017-12-18 15:52 来源:武汉编辑
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  大家都知道托福写作的评分标准是从语言形式(linguistic feature)和内容(content)来两方面来衡量的。如果说托福写作比喻为一个人,那么,语言形式就是一个人的仪表着装,内容则是一个人的内涵。想要获取托福写作高分,我们就必须做到“内外兼修”。

 

  优秀的语言形式需要考生注重:字数格式、词句丰富、语法正确。语法正确就是很关键的一点,本文就通过托福写作中的四类语法错误和大家谈谈语言形式中的语法正确性。

 

  语法错误一:单复数不一致

 

  单复数原则涉及可数名词单复数和动词三单(即主语为单数且动词使用现在时,动词需要用单数)。这个道理无人不知,但往往实践和理论是脱节的。那么,学生们会写成什么样子呢?[注:本文所选用错误句子均源于学生作文]

 

  错1:Job-related decision must depend on some specific situation.

 

  析1:situation是可数名词,当被some修饰时,应用复数。

 

  改1:Job-related decision must depend on some specific situations.

 

  错2:There are less support to the literature writers.

 

  析2:There be 句式中的be的单复数由主语决定,此句主语为不可数名词support,应用单数。

 

  改2:There is less support to the literature writers.

 

  错3:Traveling now become a modern way for people to relax

 

  析3:主语traveling是单数,相应的谓语动词也应该用单数。

 

  改3:Traveling now becomes a modern way for people to relax

 

  语法错误二:动词原形做主语

 

  动词原形是不可以做主语的,必须用动名词(doing)或不定式(to do)的形式。

 

  错4:Study hard will increase a person’s competence.

 

  析4:此句使用动词原形做主语,需改成动名词(doing)或不定式(to do)的形式。

 

  改4:Studying hard will increase a person’s competence.

 

  错5:Educate children is a momentous task today.

 

  析5:此句使用动词原形做主语,需改成动名词(doing)或不定式(to do)的形式。

 

  改5:To educate children is a momentous task today.

 

  语法错误三:两个或多个独立的句子用逗号连接

 

  逗号并不具备链接两个独立句子的功能。

 

  两个独立的句子有以下几种写法:

 

  第一,两个句子用句号隔开,句首都需要首字母大写。

 

  第二,用逻辑连接词连接两个句子,写作中常用的逻辑连接词为并列关系(and,分号)、转折(but, yet)、因果(for, so)。

 

  第三,写成复合句的形式,即名词性从句、定语从句或状语从句。例句有以下两种修改形式

 

  错6:People inevitably have access to unhealthy or violent information on the Internet, some people especially teenagers will be easily attracted by those information.

 

  析6:本句中,逗号连接了两个独立而完整的句子,是错误的。

 

  改6-1:People inevitably have access to unhealthy or violent information on the Internet. Some people especially teenagers will be easily attracted by those information.

 

  改6-2:People inevitably have access to unhealthy or violent information on the Internet and some people especially teenagers will be easily attracted by those information.

 

  改6-3:People inevitably have access to unhealthy or violent information on the Internet; some people especially teenagers will be easily attracted by those information.

 

  错7:Today the haze is severely heavy, it is exceedingly harmful to everyone.

 

  析7:逗号连接两个独立的句子。

 

  改7-1:Today the haze is severely heavy. And it is exceedingly harmful to everyone.

 

  改7-2:Today the haze is severely heavy, and it is exceedingly harmful to everyone.

 

  改7-3:Today the haze is severely heavy; it is exceedingly harmful to everyone.

 

  改7-4:Today the haze is severely heavy which is exceedingly harmful to everyone.

 

  语法错误四:从句单独成句

 

  从句的“从”意为“从属”,所以,它是不具备独立的功能的。也就是说,不能把从句连接词首字母大写变成一个独立的句子。从句是复合句的一部分,从句和主句就像台湾和大陆一样是不可分割的。当从句被写成独立的句子,就犹如台湾远离了祖国母亲的怀抱,于心何忍?!所以,从句必须和主句一起构成一个完整的句子。

 

  错8:The professor states that our culture has changed a lot. Which means we do not have to find what we want only from the literature work but also from the Internet.

 

  析8:which引导的定语从句独立成句,是错误的。

 

  改8:The professor states that our culture has changed a lot, which means we do not have to find what we want only from the literature work but also from the Internet.

 

  错9:The only problem of food at the present time is that people have difficulty to decide what to eat. Because people have too many choices of delicious food.

 

  析9:because引导的原因状语从句独立成句,错误。

 

  改9:The only problem of food at the present time is that people have difficulty to decide what to eat, because people have too many choices of delicious food.

 

  总结篇:

 

  语法错误的出现大多是因为在中文表达中缺乏相应英文的规则。在中文表达中,我们无需注重动词的时态语态、动词非谓语形式等,对待单复数的表达以“简”为重(如“一所大学”和“百所中国大学”,“大学”的表达并没有变化,但对应英文需要分别用单数和复数,即'a university' 和'100 Chinese universities')。

 

  以上就是武汉新航道托福培训给大家整理的托福写作中的语法与形式解析,希望对大家有所帮助,武汉新航道专注于武汉托福培训,更多托福考试资讯可点击武汉新航道官网

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