北美考试院 托福写作组 叶晓轩
Integrated Writing Task
Keywords: solar panel, environment, space dust, impact,
TPO50 Sending humans to Mars
• 零重力对人类身体健康的影响很大，medical problems难以避免
• Food water oxygen, hydroponic占地小，可以自己种菜，水可以循环净化供给饮用，植物光合作用还可以产生氧气；
• 这些辐射不会一直处于危险水平，只有太阳活跃的时候才会达到危险的水平，可以建一个小的shielded area，这样不会给飞船增加很多重量，宇航员在危险的时候也可以躲进去。
TPO52 Colonization on asteroid
• Low gravity；
• Mining valuable metals；
• Easy to reach。
• 低重力，导致health problem，例如骨密度下降，肌肉流失；
² 失重/零重力（low gravity/ zero gravity）
² 太阳辐射（solar radiation）
² 大气层（atmospheric layer）
Independent Writing Task
Some people think that older children should be required to take care of younger children. Others think that this should be done by parents or other adults.
Which of the two points of view do you agree with?
5月11日的独立写作属于教育话题下的家庭教育范畴，此题复现的是20151213CN以及20170929NA的真题。教育类话题是很多考生熟悉和擅长的领域，家庭教育则更是每位同学或多或少都会有所体会的话题。细读题干可以发现本题有一个非常明显的特点，题干所讨论的事件涉及的对象很明确：younger children, older children和parents or other adults。因此，本题非常适合采用我们的不同对象分析法，分别讨论这件事情对这三个对象的好处/坏处。
Nursing young children has long been a critical issue in parenting. As the society develops in such a high pace, sometimes parents have to get the older children to help them babysit the younger ones in the family. It is argued by some people that this practice can somehow harm the young children’s development since the older children are not mature enough either. In my opinion, however, I believe this method is beneficial not only to the parents, but also to the children, regardless they are the ones being taken care of, or the ones who is helping their parents with the parenting duty.
First of all, it can help reduce the parent’s pressure from working and providing quality nursing. With a hand from the older children, parents would be freed from some annoying care for the younger ones, such as changing diapers and bathing the baby. Thus, they would have more time to allocate to their work and other jobs which is crucial in sustaining the family financially. Besides, it is hard to imagine how much patience would left there for a screaming baby after the parents have struggle through a whole day’s labor in the workplace. Hence, the support from other family members such as their older children would really help them a lot handling both the task of nursing the young and their working.
Beyond that, helping look after the young also offers the older children the opportunity to understand their parents. As a Chinese saying goes, “We would never know our parent’s love for us until we have raised our own child”. This method provides a perfect situation where the older children could experience the painstaking job of raising a child. Only after they have suffered from a baby’s sudden scratch or being waken up in the midnight, could they sincerely understand that resentfulness their parents once tried a lot to suppress. With a better understanding of the parents’ efforts during their growth, the generation gap problem between them could definitely be solved to some extent.
Additionally, care form the older siblings could obviously help build the young children’s original social skills more effectively. Typically, there is little chance for the children to interact with peers before they are old enough to go to the kindergarten. Therefore, if their brothers or sisters usually help with their daily routines such as dressing and playing, they could learn to express their needs in an earlier age. Furthermore, hopefully, they could even understand others’ feelings whenever there is a conflict, before they go outside to socialize with unfamiliar peers. What’s more, it would also be easier for them to tackle with conflicts and avoid further physical confrontation, since their parents could supervise and interfere whenever there is such risk. However, if the younger kids are not exposed to this kind of daily contact with their own siblings, they would have to learn this from strangers in a much more dangerous way.
Admittedly, sometimes the older children could be not careful enough to guarantee the younger children’s safety, whereas under the parent’s modest amount of supervision, it would not be a problem at all. Therefore, with the benefits to all of the family members, I firmly believe it is a wise choice to have the older children to care for the younger children in the family.