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2019年6月1日托福写作考题解析 - 陈亚男

作者:陈亚男 2019-07-01 18:28 来源:武汉编辑
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作者:北美考试院 托福写作组 陈亚男

 

2019.06.01托福综合写作真题

The Integrated Task

总论点:控制夏威夷velvet trees数量的方法

阅读主旨:控制velvet trees数量增长的三个解决方案

1. 直接移走Velvet trees。因为Velvet trees的树叶颜色很显眼且很大,所以一旦找到小的Velvet trees,直接用手拔掉它即可;那些大的Velvet trees可以被砍掉。

2. 找到Velvet trees的天敌。有一种真菌可以感染Velvet trees的树叶,导致树叶掉落。并且这种真菌不会伤害的夏威夷本土的树,所以可能用这样的真菌来消灭Velvet trees。

3. 避免Velvet trees的种子沾到人身上传播到其他地方。每年Velvet trees的种子都会撒落在树下,可能会沾到人的鞋子衣服或工具上,跟随人到达新的地区并生根发芽。通过彻底的清除人们身上沾到的种子,可以避免Velvet trees进一步扩张。

 

听力主旨:每一个方法都有缺点

1. 想要移走Velvet trees是不容易的。当树被移走后,有很多阳光会直射到地面,地面上的种子就有机会不断生长,长出成百上千的新树。这些新长出来的树虽然可以用杀虫剂pesticide消灭,但是从树上掉落的种子可以存活很多年,所以会用很多年才能清除Velvet trees。

2. 用真菌的作用是有限的。因为真菌需要潮湿的环境才能起到作用。然而,放置真菌在夏威夷时,气候很干燥,降雨量很小,所以基本上真菌不能发挥作用。

3. 避免人带着Velvet trees的种子传播到新的地方作用也有限。因为种子也会沾在鸟的身上,鸟飞到其他地区的时候会将种子掉落在新的地区,Velvet trees还是会在新的地方不断生长。

 

    Velvet trees源于美国中南部,它长得很快,可以长到15米高。Velvet trees被引进到夏威夷后,给夏威夷的生态系统带来了一定的危害。看到这个背景介绍,熟悉托福综合写作的考生应该就能猜到,这一定是一篇典型的解决方案型阅读文本,而听力也正是最常见的反驳阅读提出的方法的套路。而且这类有关生态入侵的内容在热衷于考动物植物生态话题的托福独立写作中已然层出不穷。仅就2018年份来看,8月26日综合写作是围绕着如何消灭一种引进欧洲后对当地物种产生了很大的危害的flatworm;10月14日托福大陆考场的综合写作的阅读和听力探讨过如何消灭入侵的yellow ants;11月25日是针对捕捉对当地生物造成危害的python的解决方案。可见生物入侵类需要加以特别重视。这类题材在平时考生备考用的TPO中也时有出现,如TPO15的甘蔗蟾蜍的生态入侵,TPO26的斑马贝入侵等,因此,通过考前对TPO的训练,这类考题应该不会成为考试的障碍。

 

综合TPO和真题机经,我们认为对待生态入侵有以下部分内容需要加以重视:

 

1.词汇部分

 

栖息地相关词汇:habitat / dwell / inhabit / habitat

 

生物链相关词汇:food chain / plankton eater/ predator / parasite / disease / 

infestation / infest / pest-resistant / resist / dominate / reproduce / germinate / nutrient

 

物种入侵相关词汇:wipe out / crowd out / be aggressive / invade / invasion / colonize / compete for

 

物种数量的下降相关词汇:decline / descend / shrink / extinct / endangered / minimize / devastate / destroy

 

2. 生物入侵的常见解决方案的背景知识词汇补充

 

A.生物干涉法:Biological introduction: predator / virus / fungus

 

B.人类活动干涉法:Human activities: capture (financially beneficial) / chemical control (poison / pesticide)

 

    因此,考生在备考的时候需要刷TPO题目固然是非常重要的,与此同时,还需要刷题时进行总结和归纳,从而熟悉相关话题的词汇和背景知识,有助于考试的时候更好的把握阅读和听力的要点。

 

 2019.06.01 托福独立写作真题

The Independent Task

 

Which of the two kinds of tourist attractions do you prefer?

 

Those that have only some visitors;

Those that have many visitors.

 

 

审题和破题:

 

儿童节出现的独立写作题目虽然是新题,却是一道对大朋友们特别友好的题目,特别是对于刚刚经历过五一假期的中国考生,想必是不缺乏任何谈资的。值得注意的是这是今年第二次出现旅游相关题目(2019年1月12日考题:年轻的时候出国旅游更好还是年纪大更好?),其隶属的个人喜好类话题历年都是考试的热门话题,必须牢牢掌握。

 

回到题目本身,题目问的是,选择人多受欢迎的旅游景点,还是选择游客更少的景点。虽说题材亲切熟悉,但是仍然需要在审题部分就把握好答题思路,使分论点清晰明了。因为本题是典型的利弊分析题,考生可在破题时寻找双方选项的好处(缺陷),进而选取一个容易论证的立场展开即可。由于贴近生活,考生可以从实际生活出发,结合自己的度假经历,如选择受欢迎的人多景点的好处——受欢迎意味着景点质量高,特别具有游览价值;受欢迎的景点方便我们呼朋引伴游览增进友谊;受欢迎的景点开发完善,具有良好的配套设施。人少的景点也有好处,如人少不需要排队,避免拥堵,旅行体验好;人少的地方商业化程度低,可以更好的欣赏景点;人少的地方可能食宿费用低,省钱等等。

 

在结构设置上,由于题目中设置了比较项(二选一),因此非常适合写两个分论点(好处或者缺陷)的展开加一个让步段,将自己的立场与未选立场进行对比来显示自己思维的缜密,让全文的论证更有说服力。这时就可以巧妙的将非选立场的上述优点化用在让步段中。如立场选择去欢迎的景点,让步段就可以首先论述人少景点的优势,再用人少相对于人多的景点的缺陷来削弱,如配套不好,体验不好等等。

可参考如下范文:

 

In such a hustling and bustling life, people are seeking for ways out. Travel, for example, is a prevailing lifestyle adopted by scores of them to gain inner peace. It is not uncommon to notice that numerous scenic spots are brimmed with the crowd, particularly on vacations. That’s why an increasing number of people nowadays have the tendency to engage themselves in sparsely populated attractions. I myself, is one of them. Here are the reasons why I am in favor of the latter choice.

 

Firstly, tourist destination with much less population provides people with a better access to relaxation. Undergoing a plethora of pressure, it is no wonder that people at present are eager to rest their minds as well as bodies in a peaceful scenery. When choosing popular attractions, what can be seen in most cases is endless queues outside of entrances, toilets, restaurant, and so on, which can be extremely annoying and troublesome, especially in unpleasant weather conditions. Conversely, with much less people in the spots, one can take time to appreciate the landscape, read the introductions of a masterpiece, take much more photos in front of a much clearer background, and enjoy fine dinners with friends and family. Afterall, to free our minds is the initial objective when we choose to take a holiday, which can be fully realized in a less populated tourists’ locations.

 

Moreover, in the comparison with popular tour sites, the less welcome ones are more like to offer more affordable prices in accommodation, food and other facets. In a free market, the price is usually determined by supply and demand. The prices charged in tourist locations work in a similar way. The more people saturated there, the more demand exceeding supply, the higher fee merchants would ask for. To illustrate, I still remember when I visited Florence in last Easter, a single room near Basilica in an economical hotel rose to 250 euros per night, tripled the normal prices. Yet, it was soon fully booked, not to mention the more costly air tickets I paid to fly there. With such excessive money, I could have ordered a capacious and easeful suit in a less welcome city.

 

Admittedly, the popular attractions often carry huge historical and cultural significance, as well as afford essential educational value. One may also argue that only by visiting those renowned sites can we access the best parts of human life. However, wasting time among hundreds or thousands of people with an attempt to a mere glance of Mona Lisa, cannot ensure the understanding of the beauty as well as the mysterious smile. In contrast, a deep and well-rounded comprehend is more likely to be granted via paying a visit to a relatively less popular museum since we can allocate as much time as we wish without pushing away the throng and the disturbing noises produced by them.

 

To summarize, so as to the better enjoyment in holiday and more favorable prices, choosing the less crowded tour sites are strongly recommended, from my perspective.

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