作者：武汉新航道北美考试院 托福写作组 卢雅静
|Integrated Writing Task|
1. The outside of the cans were sealed with lead, but it could not actually get in the containers. 铅被用来封装罐头，但是不会进入罐头内部。
2. There were no actual signs of any such incidents from other ships. 其他船上没有出现同类事件，所以可能性不大。
3. There could have been other sources such as water purifiers as the pipes were made of lead. 有可能是其他来源，比如船上铅制净化水管道。
1、The workers were under pressure and had to work long hours, hence some cans were not properly sealed. 工人们压力大， 工作时间长，一些罐头并没有密封好；
2、No prompt reports or tests were carried out to show other symptoms of lead poisoning. 没有在其他船上进行报告与检查，所以一些铅中毒的表现被忽略；
3、Water ran through the lead pipes was for the ship engines, drinking water was of a different source. 铅管道净化水是给发动机用的，饮用水来自于其他渠道。
Key words: lead, canned food, poison, pipe, seal
总论点：三个证据证明Robert E. Peary的确到过北极
分论点1：委员会的成员有Robert E. Peary的朋友，还给国家地理协会捐了钱，所以不可信
分论点2：另一个探险队没有带食物，且天气情况比Robert E. Peary当时好太多了
|Independent Writing Task|
At some companies, the manufacturing of products causes damage to the environment. Some think the best way to prevent damage is to punish those companies, for example, a high tax may be collected. Others think that there may be better ways to prevent the damage.
Which one of the two views do you agree with?
9月22日的独立写作看上去是一道新题，事实上这是2015年12月12日的真题，且在2016-2018年中，每年都有与环境保护相关的三选一的题目，对于会拿往年真题练手的同学来说，从历年真题中获得分论点的灵感是在考场上快速确定立场展开作文论述的好方法。这道题目看似是一道二选一，事实上能看到其中一方立场有“the best way”这样的绝对词，因此这道题选择同意还有其他方式也能防止环境破坏会比好写。
According to a research recently, the 21st century has been the hottest on record, leading to droughts, floods and other extreme weather conditions around the world. Several environmental damages have been attributed to the modern lifestyle habits that create a large carbon footprint, waste that is difficult to degrade and polluted water. Some claim that some companies are the culprits of these damages and should be financially punished, however, measures aiming to big companies is not a panacea, instead, there are other better ways to prevent the environment from being damaged.
First, appealing the public to reduce the use disposable plastic products is able to prevent the environment from being damaged. Single-use plastic has caused enormous damages to not only marine life but also our daily life since some of it can take up to five hundred years to biodegrade according to the research recently. Therefore, appealing the public to invest in a canvas bag for shopping instead of the plastic ones, or to use a more eco-friendly alternative such as bamboo straws rather than plastic straws when sipping beverages can alleviate the natural strain of biodegradation to a very large extent and save the lives of some marine animals who take plastic waste as food by mistake at the same time.
In addition, developing eco-friendly vehicles should also be taken into account to reduce the air pollution. For most people, taking public transportation and driving is an unavoidable part of their lifestyle, which makes the air pollution caused by emission of vehicles seemly an unsolvable problem. However, Avoiding driving and opting for a bike ride instead is feasible for short journeys. Besides, if governments invest in developing and researching hybrid cars or electric cars which will produce less or even no harmful emissions, and popularize them in the market, people are more likely to choose these eco-friendly cars as their alternative rather than a petrol guzzler. The air pollution in big cities, as a result, is bound to be abated.
Admittedly, imposing high tax on manufacture companies might compel them to optimize and upgrade the filtering techniques, and thus the pollution caused by these enterprises is likely to reduce. However, to develop or introduce high-technological equipment, a large amount of money should be invested. In order to regain favorable profit and survive in this competitive world, it is possible that companies will raise the price of their products, and finally it is the consumers that will financially suffer. In conclusion, I am convinced that except for punishing big companies, there are still better ways to solve the environmental issues.