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单选题的考查信息在哪里?

来源:      浏览:      发布日期:2019-02-21 17:44

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作者:新航道武汉学校英联邦考试院雅思阅读组 李凤彩

单选题是雅思阅读考试中考生最为熟悉的一种题型,因为这种题型在国内的语言考试中经常遇到。但是这种题型是考生谈虎色变的题型之一,因题干的信息较多,选项干扰性大而且拿不准定位,好多考生在做此题型的时候思路不清晰,盲目读文章,结果答题耗时长又、正确率低。所以我们就来探讨如何柳暗花明、一举搞定单选题的定位。

首先我们来看一下单选题在阅读中的考查情况,单选题在2016、2017年的题型占比分别为9%,8%,意味着该题型在过去的两年中出现的频率不是很高。而在今年考试中的占比已经远远大于这两个百分比(在2018第一季度已经占比14%),几乎在每场考试中都能遇见,单选成为了今年雅思阅读考试的新宠,我们在今年的备考中就要更为重视它了。

我们近距离剖析单选题的定位,先来看一道例题:

What view of the Montreal study does the writer express in the second paragraph?C12T7P3)

A. Its aims were innovative.

B. The approach was too simplistic.

C. It produced some remarkably precise data. 

D. The technology used was unnecessarily complex.

来自于我们做细节题的本能,根据题干信息“second paragraph”回到原文找定位词Montreal study:

A recent paper in Nature Neuroscience by a research team in Montreal, Canada, marks an important step in revealing the precise underpinnings of ‘the potent pleasurable stimulus' that is music. Although the study involves plenty of fancy technology, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) and ligand-based positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, the experiment itself was rather straightforward. After screening 217 individuals who responded to advertisements requesting people who experience ‘chills' to instrumental music, the scientists narrowed down the subject pool to ten. They then asked the subjects to bring in their playlist of favourite songs - virtually every genre was represented, from techno to tango - and played them the music while their brain activity was monitored. Because the scientists were combining methodologies (PET and fMRI), they were able to obtain an impressively exact and detailed portrait of music in the brain. The first thing they discovered is that music triggers the production of dopamine - a chemical with a key role in setting people's moods - by the neurons (nerve cells) in both the dorsal and ventral regions of the brain. As these two regions have long been linked with the experience of pleasure, this finding isn't particularly surprising.

我们很快在第2段前面找到了所谓的定位,但是这个地方真的就有答案吗?好多考生会从这个地方读下去,甚至都读完了全段,语言基础好理解文章快的考生最后还能勉强选对答案(虽然耗时长),语言基础不好的同学这样找答案的话就伤不起了那么这道题的考查信息究竟在哪里?我们回到题干中按图索骥:根据题干中信息文字“view”“express”可知,出题人实质上考的是作者对于该研究提出的观点,所以我们要找的是观点主观评价的句子,而不是事实(客观信息)的句子。按照这样的思路,我们在第二段中找到处观点的句子“the experiment itself was rather straightforward”以及“they were able to obtain an impressively exact and detailed portrait of music in the brain”和 “ this finding isn't particularly surprising.”,根据正确选项是对定位句的同意替换原则,只有c选项符合条件(remarkably 替换impressively; precise替换exact)。

以此题为例,考查观点的题目在真题中也为数不少,下图即为单选题中考查观点的题目统计:

来源

单选题目总数

观点题目个数

C4

16

2

C5

11

7

C6

9

3

C7

13

4

C8

15

2

C9

19

2

C10

17

8

C11

9

6

C12

10

8

C13

13

11

总数

132

53(40.15%)

如果我们能抓住观点类单选题的题干特征信号词,那审题的时候就可以思路清晰地回原文找目标定位句来解题。下面来从以下给出的题干中寻找规律:

32.What point does the writer emphasise in the first paragraph (c12t7p3)

36.According to Leonard Meyer, what causes the listener’s emotional response to music? (c12t7p3)

14 In the first paragraph, the writer makes a point that (c11t4p2)

17 What does the writer suggest about Bringing Up Baby? (c11t4p2)

18 The writer refers to the ‘click’ of a door to make the point that realistic sounds (c11t4p2)

15 One reason that the writer refers to Humphrey Bogart is to exemplify

27 The example of the ‘million-dollar quartet’ underlines the writer’s point about (c10t1p3)

30 In the last paragraph, the writer suggests that it is important for employees to (c10t1p3)

31 Which of the following does Wagner claim? (c10t4p3)

35 In paragraph E, the writer suggests that some museum exhibits (c9t4p3)

27. what is the reviewer’s attitude to advocates of positive psychology? (c13t4p3)

从以上题干示例中可以看出,观点类题目中会带有according to sb, suggest,claim, underline, emphasize, exemplify , attitude, view,  point 等词,那么我们要结合题干定位词以及此类信息原文找观点类句子(观点句信号:引号、believe, claim, argue, think, according to, suggest, recommend, propose, convince, speculate, insist, assert, 含评价类形容词的句子等)来解题,缩小定位时间,快而准确确定答案。

下面我们来练习一题c13t4p3:

27. what is the reviewer’s attitude to advocates of positive psychology?(c13t4p3)

A. They are wrong to reject the ideas if bentham.

B. They are over-influenced by their study of bentham’s theories.

C. They have a fresh new approach to ideas on human happiness.

D. They are ignorant about the ideas they should be considering.

这道题根据定位词“advocates”, “positive psychology”可以定位到第一段,但是题干考的是reviewer(即作者)对积极心理学倡导者的观点,而第一段知识提出了“positive psychology”以及它的倡导者的观点,并不是作者的观点,所以应该接着往下找,在第二段前两句发现了作者的态度(观点:句中有评价类形容词集中体现)。

it is an astonishing crude and simple-minded way of thinking, and for that very reason increasingly popular. Think in this way are oblivious to the vast philosophical literature in which the meaning and value of happiness have been explored and questioned, and write as if nothing of any importance had been thought on the subject until it came to our attention.”

选项中只有D是对定位句的一致的同意替换(ignore对应oblivious,ideas对应meaning以及value,attention对应considering)。

总之,单选题的高效定位需要考生仔细审读题干,抓住题干有效信息,辨明题干意图,然后回原文中有目标地有思路地找定位句,提高定位的速度,准确解题。相似类型的题目要善于总结发现共性和规律性,以便洞察出题人的思路,快速捕捉题干所考察的细节信息。

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