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“三步走”轻松搞定口语拓展

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作者:何园梦  新航道武汉学校英联邦考试院留学预备课程听说并进讲述,英语口译翻译硕士,英语专业八级,高中英语教师资格证,曾任一本院校英语教师。授课逻辑分明,幽默风趣,注重能力与技巧的同时培养,在生动的课堂中让学生学得轻松。

在轻松活泼的课堂氛围中,学生的基础还不错,大家会积极主动地参与话题讨论,口语学习可以事半功倍。然而,现实的课堂上是这样的:

Q:Do you prefer travelling alone or with others?

A:I like travelling with others.

这样回答没错,但还远远达不到雅思口语6分(及以上)的要求,下面我们来看看雅思官方的评分标准:

Band 7: Speaks at length without noticeable effort or less of coherence. May demonstrate language-related hesitation at times, or some repetition and/or self-correction. Uses a range of connectives and discourse markers with some flexibility.

Band 6: Is willing to speak at length, though may lose coherence at times due to occasional repetition, self-correction of hesitation. Uses a range of connectives and discourse markers but not always appropriately

不难发现,speak at length是一个重要的评分点,也就是说,我们在给出观点后,需要适当拓展并支撑自己的观点。可是有些同学大多以“Yes/ No” “I think...”回答问题,试想考官又如何知道你的真实口语水平?

今天我们以偏好类口语话题为例,谈一谈如何做到有理有据地speak at length我们以教材skillfull3 unit10 listening2中的辩论为例,针对Do you prefer paper dictionaries or electronic dictionaries? 这一问题,归纳回答为:I definitely prefer electronic dictionaries due to the fact that they are much more convenient. You know, they’re just apps on your phone. Compared with electronic dictionaries, paper dictionaries are too heavy and not quiet user-friendly, since you need more time to look up for a word.(译文:我当然更喜欢电子词典,因为他们更方便,他们只是手机上的应用。跟电子字典相比,纸质字典太重,也不好用,因为用纸质字典查单词的时间更长。)

显然,这个回答达到了speak at length这一要求,让我们来学习一下。首先,发言人直接表达了个人观点:I definitely prefer... 然后给出了理由:due to the fact that... 最后做对比,怼了一下纸质字典: Compared with electronic dictionaries, paper dictionaries...正是通过“表观点-给理由-做对比”三步走使表达论据充分、对比鲜明、内容丰富。

首先,我们看看“表观点”的陈述,表达观点的时候,我们需要用完整的句子来回答。但为了争取思考的时间,有同学会说In my opinion, I think... 注意,In my opinion和I think意义相同,不能重叠使用,择其一即可。大家也可以偶尔说出对题目的直观反应或评价等,比如:I’ve never thought about it, but to be honest...; This is really an interesting question....但是这种表达不能滥用,只适用于当题目较难回答,需要多点时间组织语言时。举个雅思口语P1的例子:Do you prefer writing letters or sending emails? 我们可以按照“三步走”来操练一下:

第一步:表观点:I normally prefer sending emails.

第二步:对观点做出解释,也就是给出理由。原因的引出方式一般用because, 此外,还有一些同义替换的表达:

 

表达

用法

来源

since

+句子

Skillful2 unit1

that’s because

+句子

Skillful2 unit1

the reason is

+(that) 句子/v-ing/n.

Skillful3 unit3

the reason for this is

+(that) 句子/v-ing/n.

Skillful3 unit6

let me elaborate...

+句子

Skillful3 unit6

due to

v-ing/n.

Skillful3 unit6

due to the fact that

+句子

语料库

 

此处我们对于Do you prefer writing letters or sending emails?的回答可以由一句拓展为两句:I normally prefer sending emails due to the fact that sending emails is quite convenient, you can send the message with a click of mouse.很多同学答到这里就止步,确实能补充一两个原因已经着实不错。但是,如果大家可以对比论证,举出反例会更有说服力。常见的表达对比的表达为but, 同学们还可以参考以下表格,作为同义替换使用,增加口语表达的多样性。

 

表达

用法

来源

Compared to/with A, B...

+句子

Skillful3 unit4

Unlike A, B...

+句子

Skillful3 unit4

However,

+句子

Skillful3 unit4

On the other hand,

+句子

Skillful2 unit6

If ...

+句子

Skillful3 unit7

Otherwise

+句子

语料库

   

雅思口语题目Do you prefer writing letters or sending emails?的回答,我们加上对比论证后,可以进一步拓展为:I normally prefer sending emails due to the fact that it is quite convenient, you can send the message with a click of mouse. If you write letters, it would be time-consuming, I mean, you have to buy stamps and envelopes. Sometimes you even have to find a post office. (译文:一般而言,我偏爱电子邮件,因为它更加方便快捷,我只需要点一下鼠标即可发送。而写纸质信件就太耗时了,还得去买邮票和信封,有时还得去趟邮局。)

最后举一个经典的例子:Do you prefer watching films at the cinema or at home?

选择电影院的同学们可以参考这个回答:I prefer watching films at the cinema. This is because you can enjoy perfect atmosphere and sound effect at the cinema. Otherwise, you have to face a small screen at home. (译文:我更喜欢去电影院观影,因为我可以在影院享受完美的氛围和音效。不然,只能独自在家盯着小屏幕。)

喜欢宅在家里的同学可以参考这个回答:I generally prefer watching films at home because it’s easier and more relaxing, specifically, I can pause at any time I want, lying on my cozy sofa. But if I watch movies at the cinema, I have to find a taxi and queue up for a ticket.(译文:我一般更爱在家看电影,因为更加轻松自在,比如,我可以躺在舒服的沙发上,还可随时暂停。而如果在影院看,还得出门打车,去影院排队买票。)

细心的同学会发现上面的参考答案对表达上做了适当的改动,现在补充表观点的表达如下:

If I had the chance, I'd rather...

I far/ much/ definitely prefer...

I generally/ normally prefer...

I slightly prefer...

I've never really thought about it, I guess my preference would be...

因此,我们在做口语练习、备考雅思口语时,同学们如果不知如何拓展口语表达,可以运用我们今天学习的“三步走”,即“表观点+给理由+做对比”,如此可以让我们的口语表达更有逻辑性、更加丰富、更具有说服力,具体操作如下:

*第一步:表观点I normally prefer/suppose, .../In my opinion,...如果针对较为复杂的题目,可以评价一番,使用I’ve never thought about it, but actually...等表达。

*第二步: 给理由,使用due to the fact that.../ The reason for this is.../since...等原因衔接词支撑我们的观点。

*第三步:做对比,通过Compared to/with A, B...; Otherwise, ... / However,.../Unlike A, B...等进行对比论证。

以上的三步走普适性很强,在留学预备阶段适用的代表性讨论类话题整理如下:

话题

出处

类别

If you could have the chance to experience the life of one famous people for one day, would you be a businessman or pop star?

Skillful2 U1

Character

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement that advertisement is generally beneficial to customers?

Skillful2 U4

Ads

If you are going to meet someone that is quite dear to you, which would you go, a café or a restaurant?

Skillful2 U7

Cafe/

Restaurant

If your school wants you to participate in the following community services, which one would you choose? Planting trees or teaching in a primary school for the disabled.

Skillful3 U2

Community service

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement that a large company makes more contribution to the society?

Skillful3 U4

Scale

备注:“三步走”适用于所有留学预备课程讨论类题目,受篇幅限制,只选取了一部分典型口语题目。

同时,“三步走”特别适用于雅思偏好类话题以及托福考试独立命题,整理合适的口语话题如下:

话题

出处

类别

Which is better, advice from family members or from friends?

雅思P3

Advice

Do people like reading books in the native language or a foreign language?

雅思P3

Book

Do you prefer the city or countryside?

雅思P1

Cities

Do you prefer watching TV alone or with others?

雅思P1

TV

Do you prefer to study in the mornings or in the afternoons?

雅思P1

Study

Do you think teachers should be angry at students?

雅思P1

Teachers

Some people like to buy new but expensive books while others prefer to buy old but cheap ones. Which one do you prefer?

TOFEL Task2

Book

 

“三步走”适用的雅思和托福口语话题不限于以上表格,在偏好类话题和部分观点类话题当中都可以运用,同学们可以结合题库多多练习,培养critical thinking, 让大家做到speak at length,轻松拓展口语。

最后,我们再回头看一下文章开头的雅思话题Do you prefer travelling alone or with others? 结合从本文学到的“三步走”,开始操练起来吧!

(参考回答:Well, it really depends, but generally speaking, I normally prefer travelling with others, simply because we can deal with possible problems together during the journey, and we can share the experience. However, travelling alone means that I would probably be faced with complex tasks on my own. For example, I have to get temporary accommodation and find a place for meals.

译文:视情况而定,但一般而言,我更喜欢结伴旅游,因为我们可以一起解决旅途中可能出现的问题,也可以分享旅游经历。然而,独自旅游意味着我很可能会独自面对复杂事项,比如说,找到临时住所,找地方吃饭。)

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