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综合型雅思写作,只弄清一题即可 - 钱静华

作者:钱静华 2019-11-27 17:18 来源:武汉编辑
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雅思大作文综合类题型在五种命题模式的考试频率并不高,2017年只考了4场,2018年只才考了2场。除此之外,在整个雅思剑桥官方4-14一共11本书中,综合型的雅思大作文也只有4道练习题,分别在C8T3,C8T2,C10T1和C14T4。


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考试考得少,练习题给的少,学生们也自然而然忽视了这种题型。但是,综合型考题其实是将另外四种命题模式混合起来,并且对学生的观点组织和逻辑能力要求更高,所以如何回答的准确及漂亮是每一个老师和学生都应该思考的问题。其实,考官已经在官方真题中给我们做了一个很好的示范,那就是C8T3接下来,我会为大家来结构这篇文章,让大家知道如何高效地完成一篇综合型大作文写作。

 

Increasing the price of petrol is the best way to solve growing traffic and pollution problems. (C8T3)

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

What other measures do you think might be effective?

 

首先从开头开始,拿到这个题,首先可以判断是一道社会类话题,而且强调了社会中的交通拥堵和污染问题。一般我会让学生联想到之前讲首段时提过的“问题出现”背景描述的方法,即看到题目中有比较明显的“problem”或者“the best way to solve”就可以用“…是一个巨大的社会问题”去开头。考官也是如此:There is no doubt that traffic and pollution from vehicles have become huge problems, both in cities and on motorways everywhere.

 

背景铺垫好后,需要描述个人观点,题目中问了两个问题,一个是在多大程度下同意或者不同意,一个是有没有其他有效的举措。如果按照我们平时讲的回答个人观点的方法,可以分开回答,即“I agree/disagree with the given argument and will propose other two viable solutions之类的,但考官的回答更加巧妙:Solving these problems is likely to need more than a simple rise in the price of petrol. 从这里的simple一词即可看出,题目中的举措过于浅显简单,表明了自己不同意的观点,后面的need more than”也隐含了自己将在文中提出其他解决措施。

 

而在回答后面的“To what extent do you agree or disagree?”这个问题时,更加精简。同不同意型的问题回答,如果单独考,需要回答250字,那如果在综合类作为两个问题中的一个,可能只能回答80-100字,那如何将一篇250字的文章浓缩成100字左右呢,则是需要把我们常建议的“让步反驳法”谋篇布局方法中的驳论段进行删减。 

 

驳论段无非就是去阐释自己不倾向观点的合理性并加以反驳,考官用一句话就完成了这个目的,While it is undeniable that private car use is one of the main causes of the increase in traffic and pollution, higher fuel costs are unlikely to limit the number of drivers for long.紧接着,再进一步递进,As this policy would also affect the cost of public transport, it would be very unpopular with everyone who needs to travel on the roads.这样就给读者留下一种提高油价不仅不能长期解决问题,还会激发额外社会矛盾的感觉,再提出自己的举措,便会显得非常自然。But there are various other measures that could be implemented that would have a huge effect on these problems.

 

而针对第二个问题“提出有效的举措”,又可以怎么回答呢?以下是考官原文:

I think to tackle the problem of pollution, cleaner fuels need to be developed. The technology is already available to produce electric cars that would be both quieter and cleaner to use. Persuading manufacturers and travellers to adopt this new technology would be a more effective strategy for improving air quality, especially in cities.

 

其实可以从考官的回答中,总结出提出举措的逻辑链:为了解决 (),我们需要()。具体来说,应该怎么做。如果这么做以后,结果会怎么样?

 

比如,I think to tackle the problem of为了解决 (pollution),我们需要(

cleaner fuels need to be developed). The technology is already available to produce electric cars that would be both quieter and cleaner to use.具体来说,应该怎么做(Persuading manufacturers and travellers to adopt this new technology) would be a more effective strategy for 如果这么做以后,结果会怎么样?(improving air quality, especially in cities).

 

所以在针对第二个交通堵塞的问题是,考官也是这个思路。为了解决(To do this), we need to我们需要(improve the choice of public transport services available to travellers). 具体来说,应该怎么做(For example, if sufficient sky trains and underground train systems were built and effectively maintained in our major cities,) 如果这么做以后,结果会怎么样?(then traffic on the roads would be dramatically reduced) …

 

这样两个举措提的就不会像空洞的喊口号了。

 

再来看看考官的结尾段:In conclusion, I think that long-term traffic and pollution reductions would depend on educating the public to use public transport more, and on governments using public money to construct and run efficient systems.

 

抛去would depend on…, and on… 这个句式结构可以学习之外,还可以看到政府举措的几个方式,政府的举措往往可以从三个维度进行展开。首先,政府有钱,所以可以提供funding,用资金去资助一些行动的展开;其次,政府有权,权力则可以制定policy/regulation,用以归属公民的行为;第三,政府有号召力,可以通过education提高大家的各种意识。这样,也可以更佳完整的描述出政府的职能。

 

写到这里,整篇文章就结束了,再回头看看整篇文章的结构,不就是一篇完整的综合型考题的模版框架吗,希望对大家有所帮助!

 

There is no doubt that _______ have become huge problems. Solving these problems is likely to _______.

While it is undeniable that ________ is one of the main causes of ________, _______ are unlikely to ________. As ________, it would be ________. But there are various other measures that could be implemented that would have a huge effect on these problems.

I think to tackle the problem of _______ need to be ________. ______ would be a more effective strategy for ___________. However, _____ will not be solved by _______. To do this, we need to improve ______. For example, if _____, ______would be _______.

In conclusion, _____ would depend on _____ more, and on ______.



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