Nowadays, children spend too much time watching TV and playing computer games. Some people believe this has negative effects on children’s mental abilities. To what extent do you agree or disagree? (20190216)
What does the word ‘mental’ refer to?
‘Mental means relating to the process of thinking. A mental act is one that involves only thinking and not physical action’.通俗简单地来讲mental abilities就是跟智力的、脑力的相关的能力，也就是一切跟大脑发展相关的，比如听、说、读、写、看的能力我们就可以认为是属于mental abilities.
所以，如果在文章中使用一些观点，例如Sitting in front of TV for a long time without doing enough exercise makes some children overweight, even resulting in obesity，就会非常影响Task Response (任务完成情况)的得分，一个完成度比较好的大作文，比如在Task Response 这一项拿到7分及以上，核心是需要做到：
Address all parts of the task (回应各部分写作任务)
很明显，上面给出的示例观点并没有回应对mental abilities, 而诸如此类对身体影响之类的观点在这个题目里面就完全不适用了。
What do we know about the effects of watching TV and playing computer games on mental health?
首先从我们自身的体验感受来说，不管是看各种个样的电视节目还是玩儿不同类型的电脑游戏，一定会对我们的大脑产生一种视觉刺激(visual stimulation)，而多次画面的刺激是能够培养visual attention （视觉注意力）和图片信息处理的能力pattern recognition（图片信息处理的能力）；其次，很多游戏都要参与者根据相应的指令完成任务，所以相关的能力比如following instructions（跟随指令）, problem solving（解决问题的能力）, logic thinking（逻辑思维）, hand-eye combination（手眼结合能力）, fine motor skills（小肌肉运动能力）以及 spatial skills(空间技能)都可以在这个过程得到提升和锻炼
Though many parents blame the negative effects of watching TV and playing computer games on their children, screen-based technology like computer can build the player’s brain the same way as learning to read, playing the piano, or using a map. This is mainly because in many video games, the skills required to win involve following instructions, problem solving, logic thinking, hand-eye combination, fine motor and spatial skills. Also, adequate screen time allows a mass of exposure to visual stimulation from TV and video games, which can cultivate children’s visual attention skills and image processing.
这样一个完整的段落，除了前面讲过的补出的语料之外，还有两个词，screen time和screen-based technology需要大家记住，可以用来替换watching TV and playing computer games 这个表达
a mass of 大量的
problem solving 解决问题的能力
fine motor 精细动作
spatial skills 空间想象能力
image processing 图像处理能力
People’s opinions differ as to whether too much time spent on watching TV and playing computers will negatively influence children’s mental development. While I believe this can help exploit children’s intelligence in some ways, the consequences of excessive using and watching cannot be ignored.
Though many parents blame the negative effects of watching TV and playing computer games on their children, screen-based technology like computers can build the player’s brain the same way as learning to read, playing the piano, or using a map. This is mainly because in many video games, the skills required to win involve following instructions, problem solving, logic thinking, hand-eye combination, fine motor and spatial skills. Also, adequate screen time allows a mass of exposure to visual stimulation, which can cultivate children’s visual attention and image processing.
However, too much screen time regardless of what children watch or play may undo the gains we have discussed above, even resulting an imbalanced mental development. While children are able to develop their image-related skills, their literacy abilities may deteriorate as a result. This is especially true when we realize that many children who are addicted to screen-based technology are unable to concentrate on their studies if only text information is presented. While reading and writing long essays and journal articles are core aspects of higher education assessment, the lack of mental focus as a result of computer and TV addiction will negatively influence children’s academic performance.
In conclusion, though research into the long-term effects of screen time is still relatively young and we do not yet know exactly what effects playing video games, using computers, or watching TV have on childhood development, too much of anything may be counter-productive.