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2019年8月10日托福写作考题解析 - 霍小玲

作者:霍小玲 2019-09-05 18:24 来源:武汉编辑
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北美考试院 托福写作组 霍小玲

 

2019.08.10 托福综合写作真题

Integrated Writing Task

阅读部分:提出生态系统Everglades面临着三个严重的环境威胁。


1、入侵植物。Cattail这种植物入侵了这片区域, 抢夺营养, 破坏了环境;


2、干燥化。水位的下降导致了植物的死亡, 有些地方直接变成了灰尘;


3、汞过量。不但毒害了植物也毒害了人。


听力反驳:给出相应的三个解决方案


1、入侵植物大规模生长的起因是化肥的大量使用,最近的很多 farmer都换成了低盐的化肥,以后这个问题就解决;


2、这主要是因为排水系统在雨季把洪水导离人口密集的城市, 但这套系统也把湿地的 水抽走了,只要撤掉一些管道就行;


3、汞主要是因为燃煤,一些煤里面含有过量的汞, 很多工厂现在已经采用了低汞的煤, 这个问题也解决。

 


本期考题考察的话题属于托福综合写作考试中考察较多的生态类话题,主要考察的是环境受到威胁的话题,并给出相应的解决方案。


在TPO中有大量材料也涉及到了相关话题,在TPO 的题目中,有生态类话题TPO 10(海獭数量下降); TPO 18(佛罗里达榧树减少的解决方案);TPO 23(雪松数量减少)和TPO 26(斑马贝的入侵)。考生可适度选择上述提到的TPO材料,熟悉相关话题,分析材料结构和写作结构。


Keywords: plant; pollution; disease; environment; predator; technology; human activities; resources; strategy


可以类比如下综合写作。


TPO10 The sea otter is a small mammal


阅读部分:


总观点:海獭数量下降的原因是环境污染。


l 阿拉斯加海域确有污染源;


l 除海獭外,还有其他哺乳动物的数量下降;


l 不同区域海獭数量下降情况不同,可以解释为污染物聚集情况不同导致。


听力反驳:


总观点:目前的研究表明天敌捕食是最可能导致海獭数量减少的原因。


l 首先,由于没有人发现有海獭尸体被冲上阿拉斯加海滩,所以污染理论不是那么站得住脚。如果污染造成的疾病导致了海獭数量的剧减,那么情况不该如此。很少发现海獭尸体也说明了天敌捕食假说;


l 尽管逆戟鲸喜欢捕食鲸类,但是由于鲸类数量却由于人类的捕猎活动而剧烈减少。也就是逆戟鲸不得不为了生存而更改捕食习惯。目前来看逆戟鲸很有可能将唯一可以捕捉的小型海洋哺乳动物作为食物,就很可能导致文中提到的海豹、海狮和海獭等小型哺乳动物的减少;


l 海獭数量变化的不均衡恰好表明了逆戟鲸捕食理论比污染理论更合理。海獭数量的增减取决于它们生存的地方逆戟鲸是不是可以进入。在那些逆戟鲸容易进入的海域,海獭的数量急剧减少。而由于逆戟鲸体型庞大,对于浅水区域以及石头较多的水域它们根本无法到达,也正是这些区域的海獭数量没有减少。


2019.08.10托福独立写作真题

Independent Writing Task

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?


A university should offer students a public speaking course and require all students to take this course before they graduate.

 


题目解析:


本题是典型的利弊分析题型,并且是重复2017年10月29日考题,在写作时任选取一方充分论证即可。


在分析题目时须注意题目的观点是大学应提供公共演讲课程,并要求所有的学生在毕业前都来上这门课。写作时all 这个单词是一个很好的出发点,考生可以思考是否有必要要求所有学生来上这门课,进而决定自己的总观点选择同意还是不同意。段落结构可以采用一边倒或者2+1的结构。


请参考如下范文:


University graduates are usually considered as the main contributors to bettering the world. However, more students who graduate from universities are not given a competitive edge to survive smoothly in the intensely competitive job market, as already suggested by a growing body of data. To avoid this phenomenon, a voice is heard regarding the remedy for education: “Universities should offer public speaking courses and all the students should be demanded to take this course before they graduate”. As to this argument, I honestly believe there is no need to impose the requirement on all the students.


First of all, for the college students, it is wiser to focus more on academic study rather than speech ability before they graduate. As we all know, it is the best time for college students to devote themselves to academic study, since they are at the peak of their learning capacity. A student’s ability shall not be only determined by the speaking abilities; apart from that, the comprehensive abilities especially the academic ability counts more in graduates’ final job market competition. Interviewers when choosing a qualified candidate shall not take the speaking ability as the top priority. A report from the Forbes shows that masters tend to favor the candidates who are well developed in academic fields rather than those who just have the abilities to speak in front of people. Besides, the talents or elites in certain territories are usually the ones that are not proficient in public speaking when they are in universities.


Second, not all the college students have the demand for excellent speech ability, in the light of the variation in student pool and major pool. For some students who suffer anxiety and even fear when speaking in front of a large audience should take full advantage of their time to do the things that they favor. If they are forced to take the speaking courses in college years it will damage their ambition towards other subjects and what is worse, the negative psychological experience may drive the students to a deep anxiety for college life. A positive pursuit in the subjects that are within the student’s own inclination is much more significant than a forced course experience in guiding a student’s development. Besides, for certain majors, students need to dedicate themselves to an area with high focus. It may not be scientific for these students to switch themselves to a course that is not necessary for their future academic requirement. If these students are required to spend a large amount of time taking public speaking classes, undoubtedly it may be a waste of time. For personality development of a student or demand of major, not all the students are suitable to have public speaking classes.


Admittedly, public speaking could provide students with improved speaking skills and courage to express themselves. Nevertheless, this capability could also be obtained through some certain more effective methods. For instance, social activities outside the classroom or in the working circumstances are more realistic for students to practice their speaking skills since they can practice their abilities in a more flexible environment with a relatively relaxed way.


Judging from all the evidence offered, we may safely arrive at the conclusion that it is not the best way to help their graduates by requiring all the students to take public speaking classes. For the sake of the students’ career guidance, public speaking classes are not considered as crucial for every student. School authorities should encourage students to do what they need for their development.


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