北美考试院 托福写作组 叶晓轩
Keywords: bird; decline; protection; strategy; endangered.
TPO 34 Sea Cow extinction
总观点：导致sea cow 灭绝的主要原因有三种猜想
• Native people’s overhunting the sea cows for food caused the extinction.
• Ecosystem disturbance caused their main source of food, kelp, to decline, and thus led to its extinction.
• European fur traders killed the last sea cow soon after they arrived in the area, and was the main cause of the extinction.
• 皮毛贩卖商到达这个地方的时候sea cow的数量就已经很少了，几百年前才是它们的数量峰值。因此有某种因素在欧洲皮毛商来之前就一直在产生影响导致了海牛数量持续下降。所以欧洲皮毛商不是导致海牛灭绝的main cause。
TPO 48 Declining frog populations
总观点：there are three suggestions on how to prevent the frog populations from declining.
• The pesticides aimed at insects in the farmland spread into the frog habitat, causing the frog’s skin to thicken and die from dehydration.
• A kind of fatal fungus is threatening the frogs. There are methods discovered to treat or prevent infection.
• Protect the marshes and wetland in order to reserve the habitat for frogs.
• 总论点：all the solutions are not practical
• Farmers working near the frog habitat would lose their competitiveness in the market if they are required to use less pesticides since they would undergo severe crop loss with using less pesticides.
• The treatment has to be applied to each frog of the population and again and again to all the new generations, for that it would not be able to prevent the infection from being passed onto the offspring of the infected generation.
• Protecting lakes or wetlands would not help, because the main threat to these water and wetland habitats is not the excessive use of water by human but the global warming, which is on a much larger scale.
题干中的核心事件是上课这一活动，因此根据不同情况分析法，考生可根据上课前、中、后三个场景中,该授课方法可能造成的利弊来进行构思。例如课前自学时间安排更自由vs. 课前自学没人监督指导基础差的同学会掉队；上课中练习只针对没掌握的内容，效率更高vs. 课堂上只练习学生可能会不重视课堂走神、旷课；上课后学生可以针对课上练习的结果加强巩固不会的内容vs. 课上练习做完了，课后完全不想再复习。
Owing to the continuously accelerating advances in technology, the teaching methods nowadays are undergoing drastic changes. The method of sending recordings of lectures to students beforehand is among the reasonable choices for university teachers now. Though this procedure has been criticized that it may inhibit students’ interest in class, I personally advocate this method for the following concerns.
First of all, access to the lesson content before class enables students to learn at their own pace. Typically, in the university, the capacity of a lecture could be considerably larger than that of a high school class. Thus, it is generally impossible for the professor to take care of every single attendee in the class, despite the fact that there may be students who are not good at the current field and could not follow. However, by sending recordings of the lectures in advance, these students are allowed to spare more time for the lectures they are not good at, from those they are adept in. Allocating more time to these lectures, they could turn to their classmates or search for helpful resources by themselves. Therefore, it is less likely for students to fall behind others in the same class, since they have got the chance to pay more effort to their work.
On top of that, students and professors would be able to cooperate more efficiently during the class. If students are allowed to preview the content before class, they would be able to figure out which parts demand further explanation, as well as what they have already mastered. Therefore, students who do not understand part of the lecture, say part A, could only pay attention to the professor’s speech during this part A. Afterward, they may turn to the assigned practice by the professor when it goes to the next part. Besides, this method could help the professors improve their teaching efficiency as well. The professor could assign fixed practice regarding each part, allowing the students to deal with the task if they have had a good command of the content. As a result, the professor could pay more attention to those who need more guidance in terms of each part. Both the students and the professor could work with higher efficiency during the class time, which leads to my strong recommendation of this method.
Unavoidably, there is a chance that students do not make good use of the material and keep their learning the old way. But it is very likely that once this approach is carried out for a certain period of time, those students, who actively adapt themselves to it, would make considerable progress than their lazy peers. This peer pressure would be the best solution to the laziness. Besides, this method aims at the university students, who are mature grownups already. They should have learned to undertake full responsibility of their own schoolwork. Thus it should not be an issue hindering the implementation of this method.
Given all the merits mentioned above, it is safe to say that providing university students with the lecture recordings ahead of class is everything but problematic. University professors and students should definitely try to take advantage of it rather than raise up too much worries about it.