作者：武汉新航道北美考试院 托福写作组 张晟凯
TPO44 A European silver coin
• The site where the coin was discovered is very far from the place where the Norse presented in North America.
• No other coins have been found at the sites where the Norse lived in North America.
• The Norse would have known that native North Americans did not recognize silver coins as money.
• Many other object that were found in the same Native American site proved that the Native Americans could have reach the north settlements during travel and brought the silver coin back.
• The Norse didn’t permanently settle in North America. They possibly brought coins to North America and took them back when returned to Europe.
• Silver coins were regarded as something appealing at that time. And they might have been brought in because of their beauty value for possible further trade.
11月9日下午的独立写作是一道三选一的环保类的题，让考生讨论对于个人而言保护环境的最有用的方式是什么。题目中的walk or cycle，reuse and recycle used objects以及buy and eat locally grown organic foods都是常见的环保举措，区别在于是从不同的方向上对环境保护作出贡献。所以考生可以根据自己的生活经验以及对三种举措的理解来完成写作。
With the unprecedented progress of society, human beings gradually begin to be confronted with a great many environmental problems. Admittedly, the government plays an essential role in solving all these problems. However, the significance of efforts made by individuals to deal with the trouble can never be overestimated as well. Recently, a heated disscussion has arisen about what we can do to help improve the envireonment. As far as I am concerned, from the three above-mentioned methods, I would choose to contribute to environmental protection by walking or bicycling instead of driving cars to work or school.
First and foremost, compared with driving cars, walking or bicycling can undoubtedly emit fewer greenhouse gases, which is conducive to slowing global warming. It is acknowledged that fossil-fueled vehicles are to blame for the bulk of carbon emission. Therefore, only by limiting the use of all sorts of fossil-fueled cars, will we better mitigate global warming. In order to achieve this purpose, we can replace driving with walking or bicycling as our daily commuting ways. Numerous studies have manifested that the more people choose to go to work on foot or by bicycle, the less local carbon emissions will be. By comparison, recycling objects or simply buying locally grown organic foods cannot make the same effects.
Besides, changing your commuting way from car to foot or bicycle will undoubtedly reduce air pollution, which is a serious health hazard to human beings. For instance, due to the development of economy at all costs, some large cities in China are regularly hit by extended bouts of choking and acid smog, with heavy industries and car-use both among the key culprits. The smog, which reduces visibility and contains a large amount of pollutants, has extremely negative influence on the quality of life and environment for residents. Being aware of the seriousness of the problem, cities, such as Beijing, decided to reduce the consumption of high-polluting fuels by the restriction of cars, which has been proven to be effective. As an regular citizen, we are supposed to walk and ride bicycles more frequently for the sake of air protection, to which reusing objects or buying locally grown organic foods cannot make contributions.
To sum up, it works for an individual to improve the environment by walking or bicycling instead of driving cars to work or school. Limited as individual strength is, small changes do add up, which will eventually create better surroundings.