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2019年11月2日下午场托福写作考题解析 - 叶晓轩

作者: 2019-12-02 17:26 来源:武汉编辑
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作者:武汉新航道北美考试院 托福写作组 叶晓轩


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本期考题考察的话题属于托福综合写作考试中考察占比稍低的环境类话题,讨论的是开采天然气可能存在的环境问题以及对其的反驳,可以视作是能源与环境类话题的结合考察。尽管不如生态类话题高频,但是在TPO中仍然可以找到比较贴近的练习材料,比较具有代表性的有TPO 22, TPO 41等。

 

Keywords: natural gas; greenhouse gas; exploitation; noise pollution; community.

 

可以类比下列这些TPO的综合写作。

TPO22 Ethanol fuel’s is not a good replacement for gasoline

阅读部分:

总观点:乙醇燃料替代汽油没有什么优势。

   乙醇燃料无法改善汽油带来的最大的环境问题:全球变暖问题,因为它燃烧也会释放二氧化碳。

   生产乙醇燃料需要大量植物,会使得其他需要消耗植物的行业可用的植物变少,例如养牛养鸡的行业。

   乙醇燃料在价格上没有汽油有优势,尽管目前价格差不多,但这是因为有政府补助,以后补助没了,乙醇燃料就会很贵。

听力反驳:

总观点:乙醇燃料是一个很好的替代,阅读中说到的问题不足为信。

   乙醇燃料是用植物制作的,种植物的过程中释放氧气可以抵消一部分乙醇燃料释放的温室气体;

   乙醇燃料不一定会减少养殖业需要的植物,因为可以使用植物不可食用的部分去制作乙醇燃料;

   乙醇燃料慢慢推广,消费者多了之后,会带来价格下调。

TPO41 New regulations for handling coal ash may have negative consequences

阅读部分:

总观点:新的管理条例可能会带来不好的结果。

   已经有有效的相关环境管理条例存在了。

   出台过于严格的条例可能会阻碍coal ash的回收再利用。

   严格的管理条例会导致power company的成本提高,从而使得电费飙升。

听力反驳:

总观点:针对coal ash的处理绝对应该出台更严格的规则

   已有政策只针对公司新建的ponds和landfill,以前没有使用liner的老ponds和landfill需要新的规则来管理;

   新政策不一定导致消费者停止使用相关产品,例如水银的管理就没有出现这样的问题。

   确实存储和处理coal ash的成本会升高,但是这个额外成本非常值。电力公司会因此额外花费15 billion刀,但平均到每个家庭的电费增幅只有1%。这对于保护环境来说,太值了。


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题目解析:

11月2日的独立写作属于比较偏门的政治类话题,相较于比较典型的政治类话题会请考生做决策、预算类的选择来讲,本次考察的方式颇为不同。题目结合名人这一特殊群体,请考生论述名人是否应该像公众表达自己的政治观点,与预算决策变得毫无关联。因此需要抛开经典的支持我方、反驳对方的思路来构思。

 

观察题目不难发现,题目关键词不多,celebrities,political views,public,且都是名词,因此是非常适合采用“不同情况分析法”来进行讨论的。考生可以对celebrities进行分类,结合political views可以划分为政界名人和非政界名人,如歌星、影星,来进行讨论。另一方面,也可以对political views进行分类,例如分别讨论针对国内政治相关的观点和国际政治相关的观点名人应不应该表明看法。当然,还有更为讨巧的写法,即针对题干关键字涉及的两方角色来进行讨论:名人自己,和大众。本篇范文采用第三种写法,先进行让步论述说明确实人人都有表达自己想法的权利,但是名人因其身份特殊不应该这么做,以及这么做会对大众和自己造成不利影响,并结合使用对比论证、说理论证和举例论证,分开论述分别可能造成什么样的不利影响。

 

请参考如下范文:

With the continuous progress in new forms of media, the group of celebrities is growing at an unprecedented pace. Consequently, their influence on the public is as well increasing accordingly. Lately, significant amount of attention is drawn to their behaviors and utterance regarding the politics. As far as I am concerned, it is rather inappropriate for them to declare their political views to the public.

 

Undoubtedly, everyone is equal and has the right to express their position towards any issue. However, as celebrities, some limitations should definitely be set up to their rights of revealing their opinions, resulting from the particular traits of their occupation. Due to the great extent to which every detail of their life is exposed to the public, especially to the mainstay of the society, every single word of theirs tends to make a difference, more or less, to the audience. But most of them are definitely not professional in this field; thus could be quite dangerous for them to make their political view known to public, for it may be misleading and even trigger some unforeseeable consequences, such as revenge and public demonstration. Besides, free display of their political views also could bring up some potential problems as following.

 

First, in view of the public safety, celebrities’ showing their political stance could undermine the social stability. In certain historical stages in some countries, people could be extremely irritable in terms of some specific social issues. As a normal individual, it seems like no big deal to talk about one’s own standpoint. However, as famous figures, no matter which side does the celebrity take towards an issue, there would always be a part of audience standing by the other side, since the celebrity’s popularity must result in a broad range of audience. Some of them could be quite emotionally unstable, and therefore they may try to conduct some undesirable movements to this specific celebrity or even to the society, such as irrelevant people around them.

 

Furthermore, as for celebrities themselves, demonstrating their political tendency could ruin their own career as well. Ultimately, the audience’s support is all that celebrities rely on. But the audience’s political views could be extremely diverse. For example, in Main Land of China, one bottom line for all the people to support any celebrity, is that he or she is in support of the national conception that Tai Wan belongs to China. But of course there is also some people, especially youngsters in Tai Wan who do not see the full picture, go against this conception. If celebrities declare their attitudes towards this issue, they will lose the support either from those who are in approval of One China, or from those who are not, which would certainly damage the celebrities’ reputation and popularity. Therefore, it would be better to conceal their political attitudes towards controversial political issues and focus on their profession, since their occupation is not a politician.

 

In conclusion, based on the above points, I strongly disapprove that the celebrities make their political views known to the public, for the sake of public stability as well as themselves.


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