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20210306托福写作考题解析-黄万竹

作者:黄万竹 2021-03-30 14:22 来源:武汉编辑
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    202136日的托福综合写作真题重复了2014222日的真题,和ETS最近综合写作真题重复率较高的趋势一脉相承。生物类话题一直以来也是托福综合写作当中最为高频的话题,比较不同动物之间区别的题型也是屡见不鲜。例如2021116日托福综合写作真题重复了《新托福写作真经4Test 8当中的原题,同样是比较了两种动物之间的差异。真经系列教材中已经多次重复出现了综合写作原题,因此除了TPO之外,真经系列教材是考生备战综合写作、熟悉话题的重要资料。

 

Keywords: bonobo, chimpanzee, aggressive, social law, habitat.

 

    可以类比2021116日托福综合写作真题,即《新托福写作真经4Test 8 综合写作。

阅读要点有袋类动物marsupial)无法适应环境,因此,大部分地区都见不到它们的踪影。

· 观点1:和其他哺乳动物不同,有袋类动物没有胎盘(placenta),幼崽在还没有完全成熟的时候就出生了,它们的免疫系统(immune system)发育不完善,因此非常脆弱(susceptible)。

· 观点2:和其他哺乳动物相比,有袋类动物的新陈代谢率(metabolic rate)较低,这意味着在环境温度下降时,它们难以保持体温,所以只能在比较温暖的地区生存,例如澳大利亚和南美。

· 观点3:有袋类动物在很多地区灭绝了,就是因为它们在和其他哺乳动物竞争的过程中被淘汰出局(outcompeted)了。同一个生态系统(ecosystem)中的动物会竞争(vie)食物和栖息地(habitat),有袋类动物由于免疫系统脆弱,同时不能应对较冷的气候,所以被其他更强壮的哺乳动物从很多地方驱逐出去(push out)了。

听力要点:有袋类动物之所以在部分地区消失,并不是因为它们适应环境的能力不如胎盘类哺乳动物(placental mammal),有袋类动物并不比其他哺乳动物差。

· 观点1:大部分哺乳动物怀孕的过程很慢,这段时间母体会很脆弱(vulnerable),而有袋类动物出生的过程更快,幼崽在妈妈的袋子(pouch)里面成熟,它们不仅受到母体的保护,同时通过获取母乳,大大增强了免疫系统。

· 观点2:有袋类动物从食物中获取能量的过程比其他哺乳动物慢,这让它们能够适应恶劣(harsh)的环境。同时它们能够很好地调节(regulate)体温,从而能够在炎热干旱的环境下防止体温过热(overheating)。

· 观点3:化石证据(fossil evidence)表明在澳大利亚曾经有大量的胎盘哺乳动物生存,但是它们无法适应当地恶劣的环境,所以才从这片土地上消失(vanish)。因此有袋类哺乳动物和胎盘哺乳动物适应的地区各不相同而已。

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题目解析:

    这次考题重复了20181215日与2012923日托福独立写作真题,可见是托福独立写作当中的旧题。此题讨论的是在学校或职场中,适应变化的条件或者环境的能力是否比拥有某项工作或某一领域的知识对于成功更重要,属于成功类话题。此题也是对比类题型,需要注意的是能力与知识这两方面都需要讨论到,否则会有偏题的可能性。同时,托福独立写作在论证的过程当中,需要举出例子或者细节支撑自己的观点,切忌泛泛而谈,全文从到头尾进行逻辑论证的方法也不太可取,具体可感的论述才会有说服力。

 

可参考如下范文:

Pursuing success is a common goal for nearly anyone from a pupil to a chief executive officer. There is no denying that the constant accumulation of knowledge, no matter it is the multiplication table in primary school or the carefully crafted commercial strategy in a multinational enterprise for instance, is the prerequisite for our success in various fields. From my point of view, however, it is the ability to adapt to changing circumstances rather than the mere knowledge that should never be neglected.

 

First of all, even if equipped with outstanding expertise, one can hardly handle an unexpected situation without calmness under pressure. As we know, a successful interpreter has to undergo a demanding and complicated training process, which includes a grasp of abundant extra-linguistic knowledge in diverse disciplines. Notwithstanding, what makes an interpreter prominent is the psychology, especially the coolness under fire. When leaders of two countries confronted each other and the voice of opposing interpreter started trembling, the tension at the conference room and thus the pressure of the interpreter could be imaginable. Only by keeping extremely calm, could an interpreter fulfill the mission of interpreting the leader’s nearly 20-minute-long improvised speech smoothly and satisfactorily. Undoubtedly, a level head is far more important than knowledge alone in such situation.

 

Moreover, once the knowledge we already have can no longer be as useful as before, it is vital to adjust ourselves to new conditions. A Korean tour guide I know is a perfect illustration for this. When she graduated from college as an English major twenty years ago, she witnessed the increasing of Japanese tourists to Korea, turned to learn Japanese by herself and became a successful tour guide with fluent Japanese language skill. As the number of Japanese tourists was gradually outcompeted by that of Chinese ones ten years ago, she acutely noted this trend and started to learn Mandarin Chinese straight away. I really appreciate her insightfulness and decisiveness during this process. Now she is a famous sales and customer service manager in a top-ranking department store in Seoul since she can master English, Japanese, Chinese, all three at nearly a native speaker level and let alone Korean. Without her competence to be aware of continuously updating conditions, she might have merely been an unknown tour guide with limited salary no mater how fluent her foreign language is or how much knowledge about historical sites she has possessed.

 

Admittedly, a command of in-depth knowledge is significant no matter it is in school or a workplace. Whether a person can achieve his or her academic or career goal, however, depends on the psychology in a special situation and the ability to accommodate to new trends.  

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