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了解中英文差异,规避写作简单错误 -邓姝丹

作者:邓姝丹 2020-12-23 16:13 来源:武汉编辑
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很多烤鸭们在写作中都会头疼怎么写出地道的英文句子,为什么自己写的句子读起来特别扭,这是因为在写英文句子的时候,大家会倾向于从想到的中文思路字字对应的翻译过去,忽略了中英文的各自的特点,导致出现语法错误,表述不地道。

 

一、综合语与分析语

英文是综合语(synthetic),通过语言的形态变化,如动词的过去式和名词的单复数变形来表达语法关系,而中文则是分析语(analytic),主要靠虚词(如得、了、过)和词序来体现语法,这就导致很多同学在写作的时候容易犯以下两个错误:时态错误和名词形式错误,下面我们来看看如何规避。

 

1. 时态错误

英语中一共有16种时态,听起来有点吓人,但雅思大作文中常用的时态并不多,主要包括:一般现在时(论证讲道理一般现在时即可)、一般过去时(古今对比时描述以前的情况)、现在完成时(过去的动作对现在仍有影响)。

请选用正确的时态翻译:受到不公平待遇的人可能会变得反社会。

很多同学都会翻译成People who were treated unfairly may become antisocial.不公平待遇是已经发生的,但用一般过去时不足以体现过去的情况对现在的影响——变得反社会,因此准确的表达应该是:People who have been treated unfairly may become antisocial.

 

2. 名词形式错误

中文中的名词是没有可数不可数的差别,也不会有单复数上的形态变化,导致很多学生在英文写作文中也会出现类似的表达,导致错误,一般抽象名词多为不可数名词,可数名词不可裸奔,要么戴帽子a/an/the,要么加尾巴s/es,指一类人或事物是用可数名词复数即可。

请指出并修改下列句子在的错误:

(1)Many student prefer practical subject.

(2)We can acquire more informations on the Internet.

(3)Teacher can not only impart knowledge but also inculcate good qualities in student.

 

二、树形结构和竹形结构

汉语句子属于竹形结构,在表达复杂意思时,一般按照时间顺序或逻辑顺序逐步交代,有可能多个动词结构或名词性短语连用,而英文句子属于树形结构,一定要有主干结构,即主谓结构,因此在从中文句子翻译成英文时,一定要找准或者添加主语,选对谓语动词,避免出现主干结构不完整或多余的问题,常见错误有:缺主语、双谓语、主谓在语义上不配套。

请找出下列句子的错误,并改正:

(1)There are many people believe that students should be allowed to sign up for their favorite subjects.

(2)Young people stay with parents for a long may find it hard to socialize with peers.

(3)The invention of other media, like TV and the Internet, has become a common way for people to get informed of the latest news

 

三、形合和意合

中文的是意合语言,连贯和逻辑呈隐性,通过上下文的语义体现;而英文属于形合语言,逻辑呈显性,通过连接词体现。这一差别导致很多同学在英文写作的时候,缺乏连接词,导致CC(连贯与衔接)这一项只等到五分档。雅思大作文常用的逻辑连接词包括:

1. 表原因:because/ since/ as

2. 表结果(结论):as a result/ therefore/ in this way/ consequently

3. 表举例:for instance/ for example

4. 表并列(递进):firstly/ secondly/ in addition/ apart from that

5. 表对比:while/ by contrast

6. 表转折:but/ however/ on the other hand

7. 表结论:in conclusion/ to conclude

请给下列两组句子加上合适的连接词,使每组句子成为逻辑清晰的一段话:

(1)Video games can develop childrens hand-eye coordination and reaction capacity. Children need to observe and analyze information on the screen while typing on the keyboard simultaneously.

(2)Illness and diseases will may people feel languid and upset, which will reduce efficiency of study or work. A healthy body enables people to engage in tasks more devotedly.

 

通过上面的分析,可以总结出一下需要的由中英文差异导致的常见错误:谓语动词的时态、名词的形式、主谓结构的不完整或多余、缺乏逻辑连接词。只要清楚了中英文的差异,大家是可以在写作中有效规避并检查改正这些错误的。

 

练习答案:

Many students prefer practical subjects.many+可数名词复数形式;subject可数,表示一类事物用复数形式)

We can acquire more information on the Internet.information不可数,不能加s

Teachers can not only impart knowledge but also inculcate good qualities in students.teacherstudent可数,表示一类人用复数形式)

 

There bebelieve双谓语,改为:Many people believe that students should be allowed to sign up for their favorite subjects. There are any people believing/ who believe that students should be allowed to sign up for their favorite subjects. 

Staymay find双谓语,改为:Young people staying/ who stay with parents for a long may find it hard to socialize with peers.

主语invention和谓语动词has become a common way 在语义上不匹配,改为:Other media, like TV and the Internet, have become a common way for people to get informed of the latest news The invention of other media, like TV and the Internet, has dramatically changed the way people get informed of the latest news.

 

Video games can develop childrens hand-eye coordination and reaction capacity because/ since/ as children need to observe and analyze information on the screen while typing on the keyboard simultaneously.

Illness and diseases will may people feel languid and upset, which will reduce efficiency of study or work. By contrast, a healthy body enables people to engage in tasks more devotedly.

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