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浅谈小作文动态变迁地图之“直接取代”的多样表达 - 黄梓芮

作者:黄梓芮 2020-12-23 16:22 来源:武汉编辑
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对于非数据类图表小作文的考核,地图题的考频一般会比流程图要高,且绝大多数地图题都属于“动态变迁类”的题;而“直接取代”类表述,又是“动态变迁类”地图中80-100%会有的考点。所以希望考生们能够引起重视。

 

说起“直接取代”,学生在表述过程中,通常会使用到 ‘be replaced by/be substituted by/take the place of’ 来表述。replace这个词在柯林斯词典中的解释是这样的:

‘If one thing or person replaces another, the first is used or acts instead of the second.’

也就是说,原有事物A被弃用掉了,在雅思地图题中会体现为原有事物不见了,没有了,消失了。一个全新的事物B替代了它,并被投入到使用中。

 

很多学生在表述中多半选用的是直译的方法。这个当然是没问题的,也确实是可以使用A be replaced/substituted by B之类的表述,考官在范文中也用到了,比如:

The bandstand (stage for musicians) has also been replaced, by an amphitheatre for concerts and associated seating.

--- from C14T4, p. 134

可是,咱们只能选择直译“取代”之意,使用以上这些表述麽,当然不是!只要理解了“直接替代”的真正含义,我们就可以写出“花式取代”:

· 原来的事物没有了,在原有事物所处的位置上,增添了新事物;

· 新事物位于原有事物所处的位置上(静态表述);

· 新事物被建在了原有事物所处的位置上(动态表述)。

通过这些理解,我们其实本质上可以结合“拆除”和“新建”这两类表述去描写“取代”。在这里,我以剑桥真题第14册94页的一道题为例,来尝试通过不同的句式表述“原有的Pond for water plants被现在的Children’s play area所取代”这一特征:

图片1.png

 

定义一  原来的事物没有了,在原有事物所处的位置上,增添了新事物。

该句式and后半部分使用了方位介词位于句首的方式

      A has gone1 and in its place2 is B.

        1: has been removed / has been demolished / has been knocked down / has been torn down

        2: location / site / area

 

最后我们可以对该特征做如下表述:

The pond for water plants has gone and in its place is a children’s play area.

 

定义二  新事物位于原有事物所处的位置上

这里我们可以主要用到there be句型来表述事物静止存在的状态:

      There is now B3 at the original4 place of A.

        3: Now B lies; B is now sited / located / situated

        4: previous / former

      A newly-built B occupies5 the original place of A.  

        5: take up

在此基础上,可以引入现在分词做伴随状语的概念:

      There is now B, occupying the original place of A.

还可以使用where引导的定语从句对先行词place做修饰:

      There is now B at the place where A stood6.

        6: A lay (* 原形是lie喔~) / A was once sited / A was once located / A was once situated

进而可以结合“现在分词做伴随状语”和“定语从句”这两个语法点:

      There is now B, occupying the place where A stood.

或者可以用到where引导地点状语从句的方式:

      There is now B where A stood.(不常用)

不过更常用的语序如下:

      Where A stood, there is now B.(常用)

 

最后我们可以对该特征做如下表述:

There is now a children’s play area at the original place of the pond for water plants.

A newly-built children’s play area occupies the original place of the pond for water plants.

There is now a children’s play area, occupying the original place of the pond for water plants.

There is now a children’s play area at the place where the pond for water plants stood.

There is now a children’s play area, occupying the place where the pond for water plants stood.

Where the pond for water plants stood, there is now a children’s play area.

 

定义三  新事物被建在了原有事物所处的位置上

我们其实还可以从新事物被修建的动态角度去表述,同样可以运用到上述的“现在分词做伴随状语”、“定语从句”和“地点状语从句”等语法点。

B has been built7 at the original place of A.

        7: has been constructed / has been added

B has been built, occupying the original place of A.

B has been built at the place where A stood.

B has been built, occupying the place where A stood.

B has been built where A stood.(不常用)

Where A stood, B has been built.(常用)

 

最后我们可以对该特征做如下表述:

A children’s play area has been built at the original place of the pond for water plants.

A children’s play area has been built, occupying the original place of the pond for water plants.

A children’s play area has been built at the place where the pond for water plants stood.

A children’s play area has been built, occupying the place where the pond for water plants stood.

Where the pond for water plants stood, a children’s play area has been built.

 

最后,在剑14这道动态变迁地图题中,另外还有几个关于“直接取代”的特征,亲爱的读者在掌握了以上这些技巧后,可以思考如何表述这一特征啦。

 

图片2.png

 

备注

· A指代原有事物(旧事物),B指代新事物;

· 标红的地方代表可以替换为其它同类表述;

· 框出来的地方是语法点。

 

参考资料:

剑桥真题14


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