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在雅思写作中用好定语从句-雅思写作-赵云绮

作者:赵云绮 2021-06-24 17:00 来源:武汉编辑
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定语从句是学生特别熟悉的复杂结构之一,但也很遗憾地是学生特别容易滥用和用错的复杂结构之一。本文旨在总结8种适合雅思写作的定语从句及其具体适用场景。


大作文


1. 首段改写题干:


* 替换基本无意义的套路性时间背景,如Nowadays, .../In modern society, ... 。


例:Nowadays, human beings are being replaced by robots. => Human beings are being replaced by robots, which can be commonly seen recently. 【低配版,适合5.5以下学员】


* 用定语从句描述本文核心对象的特征(需与后文的讨论有关联),让主题更鲜明。


=> Human beings are being replaced by robots, which are considered to be more efficient than even a skilled worker. 【进阶版,适合6分以上学员】


2. 让步段段末反驳(衔接反驳段)


让步段基本完成,已讨论完观点的部分合理性,需结束本段并引出下文的反驳,可使用 ... , which is not always the case. / ... , which is not the whole story. / ... , which seems to be far too shortsighted. 等句型,表示“然而事实并非总是如此”等含义。【进阶版】


例:… . This may be explained by people’s expectation of an improvement in perceived easiness resulting from using technology, which is not always the case.


3. 因果衔接


* 强调结果:... (结果/句子), which may be caused by ... (原因/名词).


可用替换:... , which results from ... . / ..., which is commonly seen as a result of ... .【低配版】


* 强调原因:... (原因/句子), which may result in ... (结果/名词). 【进阶版】


* “因=>果=>果”结构中减少过于频繁出现的常规因果衔接词:


例:Because children often have less experience and therefore less awareness of the adverse consequences, they can hardly take sensible precautions. Hence, they need the help from parents so that they can understand and manage risks. => Children, who often have less experience and therefore less awareness of the adverse consequences, can hardly take sensible precautions. Hence, they need help from parents, who understand and are more able to manage risks. (并不必把所有的常规因果衔接词都替换成定从,此二句仅为句型示范)【进阶版】


4. 举例


* 例子无名称时:


... (论点). For example, ... /For instance, ... => ... (论点/完整句), which can be proven by the fact that ... (例子/完整句)


例:Teachers have only limited influence on students, which can be proven by the fact that students studying in the same class differ considerably in terms of their academic performance as well as characteristics, because they do not share the same family. 【低配版】


... (论点). Evidence can be (readily) found/seen in ... (地点), where ... (例子/完整句)


例:Teachers have only limited influence on students. Evidence can be readily found in a schoolroom, where students share the same teachers, but their academic performance as well as characteristics differ considerably, because they do not share the same family. 【进阶版】


* 例子有名称时:


A good example is ... (例子的名称/名词), ... (对例子的解释/名词) , who/which ... (具体发生的事件/完整句).


例:A typical example is Wang Sicong, the son of a famous Chinese entrepreneur, who has become notorious for his sexual harassment of and cyber violence against a female streamer recently.


可用替换:A typical example is ..., ... , who/which ... . / A case in point is ... , ... , who/which ... . / This is true, given the example of ..., who/which ... . 【进阶版】


5. 对比


A,B对比,突出A:(此句型也可用于小作文里的对比)


A majority of wild animals are put at risk because of human activities, which is in marked/stark contrast to their situation 50 years ago. (需注意A与B在逻辑上的一致性,B为名词)【进阶版】


小作文


6. 强调重点/特例/唯 一数据


可用于减少文中用数据(如number, percentage等)做主语的情况,更明显突出某项目自己的特征,而非机械地记录数据。


例:The only increase was found in the production of paper. => Paper was the only product whose amount increased.


Hours spent on teaching were the longest in the USA. => The USA was the country where the longest hours spent on teaching can be found.


Except for Australia, all countries had used nuclear power as the main source by 2000. => By 2000, nuclear power, which was not used at all in Australia, had developed into the main source in nearly all countries.


可用替换:项目名称上意词 + whose 数据 / 地点 + where / 时间 + when 【进阶版】 


7. 先后顺序衔接


可用于替换文中可能使用过度的Then, … / After that, … 等简单副词衔接。


... , which is/was/is predicted to be followed by ... .


..., after which ... .


例:In the first five years, the production of timber rose moderately from 6 million tonnes to 9 million tonnes. Then, it fell gradually to about 7 million tonnes in the next decade. =>


In the first five years, the production of timber rose moderately from 6 million tonnes to 9 million tonnes, which was followed by a slow decrease by about 2 million tonnes in the next decade.


In the first five years, the production of timber rose moderately from 6 million tonnes to 9 million tonnes, after which it fell gradually to about 7 million tonnes in the next decade. 【低配版】


8. 描述交点


以产生交点的年份作或被超过对象作为衔接,使得交点这一动态特征更具动态感,而非机械陈述“此处有一个交点”。


Paper outnumbered pulp in 1985, when they both had a production of approximately 5 million tonnes. 【低配版】


In 1995, the production of paper became even larger than that of timber, who ranked first in the previous decade. 【进阶版】


误区


解释抽象概念时,勿用… , which means/indicates … . 该句型更多用于口语,且并不符合写作中对某概念做解释时的逻辑。一个概念本身较为抽象才需要笔者做解释,所以解释的重要性绝不亚于概念本身。而定语从句是从句,其在表意/逻辑上的重要性弱于主句。倘若将解释的内容置于定从里,跟在被解释的概念后,尽管语法没有错误,但却是逻辑错误。应改为 … . This means/indicates … .

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