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口语拓展之分类讨论

来源:      浏览:      发布日期:2019-04-29 18:06

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作者:何园梦  新航道武汉学校英联邦考试院留学预备课程听说并进讲述,英语口译翻译硕士,英语专业八级,高中英语教师资格证,曾任一本院校英语教师。授课逻辑分明,幽默风趣,注重能力与技巧的同时培养,在生动的课堂中让学生学得轻松。

雅思考试口语题目涵盖范围广,与生活联系紧密,这使得许多考生误以为雅思口语无需准备,在考试中应答即可。却不知雅思口语备考需要我们提前组织和准备的,缺乏练习与准备的回答往往没有逻辑,也会让考官一头雾水。

举个例子,雅思口语Do you like travelling?(IELTS Travel) 学生A回答:Yes, I do. Because it’s very interesting. I can go to many places and meet different people. It’s an excellent and exciting experience for me. (译文:是的,我喜欢。因为它很有趣。我可以去很多地方,遇见不同的人。对我来说,这是一次极好的、令人兴奋的经历。)这个答案没有问题。我们不妨对比看看别的回答思路,Do you like travelling? 这一问题的关键词就是travelling, 那我们是否可以分别讨论travelling的不同类型呢?

我们来看看学生B的回答:Speaking of travelling, I don’t really enjoy long distance travelling since I’m a little bit carsick. If I travel for a long time, I don’t feel so comfortable. However, if it’s a short trip, for example, from Wuhan to Shanghai,  I certainly enjoy that because I can fully relax myself to visit some tourist attractions. So I enjoy short distance travelling. (译文:说到旅行,我不是很喜欢长途旅行,因为我有点晕车。如果我旅行很长时间,我觉得不是很舒服。不过,如果是短途旅行,例如从武汉到上海,我当然喜欢,因为我可以完全放松自己,参观一些旅游景点。所以我喜欢短途旅行。)

学生B的回答,逻辑上分成了两点,即长途旅行long distance travelling、短途旅行short trip。大家不难发现,后者的回答更加完整,会让考官觉得你思路较为开阔,想事情范围更广。

因此,在很多雅思口语话题中,可以通过分类讨论的办法,拓展自己的思路,使得答案非常全面而不偏激,也显示了客观的分析能力。我们可以这样做:

Step1: 分类讨论:

Well, it depends on .../ It depends.

I feel that it largely depends on the situation.

Step2: 类别① If ...../ As for...

Step3: 类别② But if.../ But when it comes to...

(备注:类似的表达还有很多,大家可以多多积累。)

  大家再看一个例题What’s your favorite sport? (IELTS Sports)

一般同学们会说:My favorite sport is basketball. Because it’s relaxing and exciting. (译文:我最喜欢的运动是篮球。因为它令人放松、兴奋。)我们不妨分析一下这个口语问题,题目关键词是sport, 我们可以根据参与度,细说不同的运动类型,按照上面的三个步骤回答如下:Well, it really depends. If you’re talking about the sport that you like to watch, I’d say I really enjoy watching diving and shooting, you know, they’re so thrilling. And they are unusual sports which can’t be watched very often in reality. But if you mean the sport that you play, I definitely enjoy playing badminton because it’s rather easy for me and it’s a good way to exercise and release stress. (译文:这个视情况而定。如果你说的是你喜欢看的运动,我会说我非常喜欢看跳水和射击,你知道,这些运动很刺激。而且他们不是常规的运动,在现实生活中比较少见。但是如果你指的是参加的运动,我绝对喜欢打羽毛球,因为它对我来说很容易,而且是一种锻炼方式和减压方法。)

   后面的回答把运动分成两类讨论,其一是我们观看的运动,其二是我们参加的运动。这样的回答显得更加全面细致。

  再看最后一个例子:What do you enjoy to do on holidays? (IELTS holidays) 到这里很多同学的思维就更加开阔啦,发现我们可以把holidays进行分类细说,因此我们把holidays分成两种情况表达观点,一个是 long vacations(长假),第二个是short holidays(短假)。大家在 long vacations和short holidays做的事情可能不太一样,我们可以说:Well, it depends, if it’s a long vacation, for example, a ten-day annual leave, I’d consider to travel to far-away places like Paris or Rome. But if it’s only a short holiday like one or two days, I prefer to stay at home or just walk my dog in the park. (译文:嗯,这要看情况,如果是长假,比如10天年假,我会考虑去巴黎或罗马等遥远的地方旅行。但如果只是一个短假期,比如一两天,我宁愿呆在家里,或者只是在公园遛狗。)

  我们总结一下以上的思路,把travelling按照距离远近分成long distance travelling 和short trip, 把sport按照参与程度分成 the sport that you watch和the sport that you play,将holidays按照时间长短分成 long vacations和short holidays,我们的思路立马变得开阔,让自己做到滔滔不绝地说出心中所想,同时还具有逻辑性。同学们可以根据具体话题来进行分类讨论,例如,我们可以根据距离、天气、国内外、参与度、工作与休闲等进行分类讨论,做到更加全面的呈现个人观点。

 分类讨论法适用性很广,在留学预备阶段适用的代表性的话题整理如下:

话题

出处

类别

Which hobbies are popular with students in your country?

Skillful1 U1

Test

Hobby

Do we shop too much nowadays?

Skillful1 U4 Test

Shopping

What do you do in your free time?

Skillful1 U6 Test

Hobby

Is it better to live in a big city or a small town?

Skillful1 U7 Test

Place

Do you often wear clothes with patterns? Why or why not?

Skillful2 U5

Test

Pattern

What kind of office space do you think people would like best?

Skillful3 U3

Space

Do you agree if something is bigger, it is better?

Why or why not?

Skillful3 U4 Test

Scale

Is pressure a negative thing? Why? / Why not?

Skillful3 U6 Test

Pressure

Do you drink bottled water or tap water?

Skillful3 U9

 

Water

What kind of office space do you think people would like best?

Skillful3 U3

Space

Do you think this new kind of lie detector is a good idea? Why or why not?

Skillful4 U3

Thought

A current trend is to eat raw foods. What are the pros and cons of eating raw food?

Skillful4 U4

Food

(备注:分类讨论法适用于大多数留学预备课程Critical thinking题目,受篇幅限制,只选取了一部分典型口语题目,表格内的题目与雅思口语题目有完全吻合的,例如表格中的Do you drink bottled water or tap water? 属于雅思口语P1 Water相关题目,在此就不一一例举。)

  最后,我们来做一个测试,看大家是否可以适当地运用今天所学地分类讨论法。

口语练习:What kinds of music do you usually listen to? (IELTS holidays)

你的回答是什么呢?

(参考答案:It depends, if I’m in a good mood, I’ll listen to some pop music because it can lift my spirit. However, if I’m feeling a bit under the weather, then I’d like to listen to some light music because it’s quite soothing and it can help me calm down.

参考译文:视情况而定,如果我心情好,我会听一些流行音乐,因为它可以振奋士气。然而,如果我觉得有点儿不舒服,我会听一些轻音乐,因为它很舒缓,可以让我冷静下来

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